6(b) Understanding the whole structure
國立中正大學電機所饒傑瑞教授Professor Gerry Rau.
Okay, in the second part of this lesson we’re going to look at the overall structure again,
and try to figure out why some of the things that we found make sense.
So, you may have noticed that the subtitle of the textbook we are using is
“Staking your claim,”
and you may have wondered what that comes from.
In the old days when there was a lot of land available,
and someone discovered something valuable,
they would literally pound stakes into the corners of the area around that,
in order to stake their claim.
And then they would go to the authorities and they would say,
“I found something valuable.”
And to do that you had to prove that no one had discovered it first,
that you have marked the boundaries of your claim,
and that there is something valuable there.
And the same thing is true in an article.
In the Introduction, that’s where you show that no one has discovered this first.
In the Methods or Process,
you mark the boundaries of your research.
And then in the Testing division, or the Results & Discussion,
you prove the value of that discovery.
So this is related to the third claim.
Again, in IMRD format, that you have a good explanation for your data.
Now the argument here – remember that we are dealing with argument structure –
the argument is split between the Results,
which cover the evidence,
and the Discussion, which talks about the reasoning.
And therefore in many papers now you have a combined Results & Discussion,
because it’s easier to write that as a complete argument,
with a separate Conclusion.
And so the importance of the components that we found there, in IMRD,
well, you have to have the data, that’s the Results.
You also need the interpretations,
that’s the explanation of the data, which is found in the Discussion.
The comparisons are often statistical,
showing that the data pattern makes sense,
or is real. And then the conclusion is sometimes just the last paragraph of the Discussion.
On the other hand, in the implicit claim 3 in IPTC,
that your solution is better than existing solutions,
you may have a complete argument in one paragraph, with both
the evidence, the data patterns, and the comparisons,
the reasoning, in the same paragraph.
And again, why do we need all of these?
Well, the comparison, particularly with previous solutions,
that’s the heart of your claim.
And the interpretations may not be required, again, because it’s based on a very solid theory.
The testing methods and data patterns are what allow you to make that comparison.
And then the conclusion summarizes the results.
But here the focus shifts to the comparisons.
So now, we’re going to make more tables.
And you may ask, why so many tables?
Well, in the last lesson, in lesson 9,
we’ll show you how to combine all of these
as a guideline for writing your own article after you finish this course.
Hello, this is the Results & Discussion division
component table of our chemical engineering article.
As you can see here below,
there are more paragraphs in this division,
but they have similar patterns,
so I didn’t list it in this table.
And now we can see the component column here.
As we can see here,
the comparisons and interpretations are the two main components in this division.
It’s because using numerous comparisons is really common in chemical engineering.
By comparing to one another,
the writer can emphasize how the methods reach the research goal.
And having explanation of the comparison results is also necessary,
so here comes the interpretations.
So now we can notice that even in one sentence
they can have two components.
It’s because the interpretation always [follows] the comparisons.
So now here comes the Conclusion division component table.
As we can see, there’s only one paragraph in the Conclusion division
but it’s structured by three subcomponents.
So the first subcomponent we can define it as the summary,
because we can see that they use one sentence,
and the key word is “we tackled.”
That means that they summarize the highlights of the article.
And the second subcomponent,
we can define it as advantage,
because they use the keywords, the positive keywords of “facile, low-cost, and … easily.”
And the third subcomponent, we can define it as future work,
because we can see that they say “can be improved further,”
which means that there’s much more things that they can do with this topic.
As shown here,
this table summarizes the component markers for the Testing division,
shown in this slide,
and the Conclusion division, shown in the next slide.
And right now, we want to show you the Testing division first.
This testing division they separate into two sets [subsections].
The first set belong to Simulation Results part
and the second belongs to Experimental Results part.
So let me look at the simulation first.
In this one, the first one,
they use the title, Simulation Results, as the testing methods component,
and they also describe how they carried out the simulations.
And the second one, they compared several figures,
so this is like a comparison, so it shows as the comparison component,
however they also show the four figures here,
they also represent the data patterns.
And the third one here, this sentence is a bit complex.
The first keyword is “cost 1.5s less than.”
This shows the comparison with two results,
and this one represents a comparison.
And the other one is “indicate that.”
Because of this behavior, they try to show that what happened in that result,
so this represents the interpretations.
Okay, let’s look at the experimental results.
As well, this one the author tried to use the title as the testing method.
And for the Figure 5b, they show the experimental setup for this experiment.
They try to show you how they carry out the experiments.
For the second one, they use the “Figure 6 illustrate.”
This key word is very important, as [Prof.] Gerry has showed you before,
the keywords like illustrate, demonstrate,
show, represent, this kind of word shows the data patterns component.
And the final one,
the component marker is “according to the experimental results.”
This one they try to refer to the experimental results and then they try to explain
what happened and what they mean,
so this represents the interpretations.
Right now, we will move to the Conclusion division.
In this part we separate it into three types.
Okay, let me explain the first one,
they say “An innovative robust controller has been investigated for dealing with” something.
this paper tries to propose and investigate this kind of controller,
so this one is clear as a summary.
So this type is show the summary.
So the second one,
the component marker is “several features that are worth pointing out.”
So this one is trying to show you the contribution of this paper,
and this is the achievement type.
And the final one is future work,
and it’s very clear because the keyword is “future work,”
so it’s really obvious this is the future work type of conclusion.
Hi, this is a table summarizing the component markers in electrical engineering article,
and we are now talking about the testing division.
As you can see in the table,
at the subsection 5C it has six paragraphs and it will include all of the components:
testing method, data patterns, comparisons, and interpretations.
And sometimes we can find that one paragraph will include two components.
For example, in paragraph 3 in section 5C will include data patterns and comparisons.
And this table summarizes the Testing division and also the Conclusion division.
In subsection 6D we will look at four paragraphs,
and it will have three components:
testing methods, data patterns, and comparisons.
And in the Conclusion division it will be have one paragraph,
but it will talk about the summary of their work and also the contribution.
So, in this division, or these two divisions, we have a lot of components.
Did that make it more difficult to find,
or less difficult, or what, how did you feel about that in these divisions?
For me, actually it’s really easy to read, because sometimes even
in only one passage or sometimes one sentence it contains a lot of components there.
But that is easy for us to read it in only one sentence, and we will not [lose] attention.
So, because sometimes I read a lot of paragraphs,
and then they spread out the components,
so sometimes it’s really hard to connect between one paragraph and another.
Yeah, but I think for the case that we have many components in one
paragraph or one sentence,
it’s better for reading, it’s more comfortable.
Well, yours, you only had, like, two paragraphs,
so it’s pretty easy to find.
There’s not much space to look for.
Wendy, how about you?
I also agree with Bung,
because if they put the components together, it’s really easy for us to read,
but for finding the components,
Because if we read too fast, we will miss it.
And we can find every writer’s habits
if we read more articles, and then we can find the components more easily.
Yeah, that’s true,
because each writer has a different pattern,
like you found before in the need, it was ‘however, however, however.’
And some different words keep appearing in one article,
but in a different article they may be different words,
but after you’ve read five or ten articles,
you begin to see the same words reappearing, one of them that’s there at least.
What about yours?
I feel the same with Bung and Wendy.
So, two components can be one sentence,
but in my case it’s easy to find. For example,
they will mention components directly, like they “compare.”
So the keywords are much more common,
in this division particularly, or these two divisions,
so, even though there are a lot of components, it’s not that difficult to find.
Well, hopefully that will be helpful to our audience, and we’ll see you next week.
Okay, now it’s your turn again,
to determine the components found in the last two divisions of your exemplar article.
Again, as you do this, remember that we are trying to identify the main point of each paragraph,
finding the component markers,
but in this case, particularly in engineering,
you may find several markers – 6, 7, 8 – all in one paragraph,
followed by the same thing,
cyclically, in the next paragraph.
So make a table summarizing this information,
and again, in the next lesson, we will go on to show how you support those claims,
and then in the ninth lesson how you can put that all together
when writing your own paper.