Let’s chat about all your questions surrounding CRISPR now that Drs. Doudna and Charpentier have won the Nobel Prize!! Part One Here: …
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over thank you again
so much for joining me today to
chat about crispr and
crisper winning the Nobel Prize
so I was totally over the moon
when I heard that Jennifer
doudna and Emmanuelle
charpentier I had won the Nobel
Prize even though I had
nothing nothing to do with the
discovery I felt like I had one
too just because it really felt
like such a big win for the
genetics community and because
a technology that's really near
and dear to my heart so I'm
really excited to talk with you
all about it
today I have a whole list of
that people sent in here on
YouTube and on patreon and on
Instagram and on Tick-Tock that
I have compiled that I want to
go through but please I want to
talk with you not at you so
jump in in the chat if you have
any questions I really want to
talk with you so the first thing
I want to do before I start
going through this list of
questions that people have sent
in is that I want to
sort of give a background on
crisper so at its most basic
what do we talk about crispr
today what we're really talking
about is a crisper caste system
but everybody just calls it a
crisper and the idea is that
there are two parts there is a
protein goodness YouTube is
telling me that you
might experience some buffering
on the stream I'm so sorry I
don't know what's going on with
this today so there are two
parts to crisper there is an
enzyme that acts like a pair of
molecular scissors and so what
it does is it cuts
DNA and then there's another
part that's a guide RNA that
works with that cast protein to
find where it wants to cut so
the idea is that you can direct
cast protein to a place in the
genome now encompasses
everything from bacteria to
yeast to human cells and cut in
a specific location where you
to cut and so this is really a
revolutionary tool but it's not
that we just sort of came up
with and built in the lab and I
think the story of its discovery
is really cool so crispr is
something that that okay good
people can still here so
crisper was really first
discovered in bacteria that have
to do with yogurt and so if you
have yogurt in your fridge right
now there's probably
a crispr system just hanging out
in your fridge so yogurt
scientists were trying to make
strains of yogurt bacteria so
the bacteria that sort of choose
up the milk and
creates yogurt that could be
more resistant to fade so
bacteriophage are viruses that
that infect crisper
and so they done this over a
period of time you know if
yogurt makers were having
problems they could send them
new strains of bacteria but it
was like a really involved
process and what they found is
when genome sequencing
came to be pretty cheap and they
could do a lot of genome
sequencing they started
sequencing the yogurt bacteria
and they found these weird areas
of the bacteria that had these
reapeat regions of DNA where the
DNA had all these repeats over
and over and over again and so
called these clustered regularly
interspaced short palindromic
repeats which is a very long
name but that's what crisper
actually means is its these
little repeats that they found
in the bacterial genome and in
between these repeats is that
they found these like nonsense
sequences of DNA and they
couldn't figure out what they
did but after a while they
figure it out that those repeat
sequences of DNA we're actually
pieces of this bacteriophage DNA
this like invading virus
virus so
bacteria was storing these
pieces of invading viral DNA in
their little crisper region and
they also found that this
conferred a sort of immunity
against these bacteria phages so
in the beginning yogurt makers
and like the makers of these
yogurt bacterias and the big one
was danesco they were sort of
immunizing bacteria against
these phages and the bacteria
would incorporate
that little piece of this phage
phage into there R and then when
that fade came in again they'd
be able to recognize it and cut
it using this cast protein and
so it acted as the sort of
immune system for the bacteria
against these viruses so really
at the beginning this was just
something that was found in
bacteria and it seemed really
cool but you know the way that
it was being used at first was
really in yogurt that this was
a natural system that the yogurt
makers had sort of harnessed to
make these fade resistant
of yogurt bacteria that they
could then sell to people
people which was but it wasn't
until a little bit later that
other scientists including
doudna and
sharpen ta thought okay well is
there a way to take this system
that's naturally occurring in
the bacteria
and use it to do things that we
want to do and so they were the
scientists who showed first in
vitro that you could take these
pieces of this crisper caste
system so you can take these
little sort of wanted posters
and you could create your
own and you could introduce
introduce something that they
called a guide RNA and so you
could design it to specifically
match up to a place of or a
piece of DNA that you wanted to
cut and you could take that cast
cutting protein and you could
put the two of these together
in a tube and specifically cut a
piece of DNA that you wanted to
cut and so that paper came out
in 2012
at the same time that actually
another paper and this is
something a comment on the first
video had brought up another
group in Lithuania was finding
something similar at the same
time and so they're
their paper got hung up review
but so there were
a couple of different groups at
the time we're figuring out like
okay we can gather this these
two pieces this cutting one and
we can create this guide RNA and
we can put them together and we
can go cut something so that was
2012 and then in 2013 a group
at the broad Institute of
Harvard and MIT Harvard and MIT
showed that they could now do
this in eukaryotic cells so
they then show that okay you can
do this in human cells and in
most cells and really
those sorts of Hurley pairs of
papers in the 2012 and 2013
Range sort of made this explode
where are we you know
scientists could not see you
like all right this isn't just
something that we can use in
bacteria this is something that
we can use to make specific DNA
changes in at this point almost
any organism that we want it
seems like every day there's
another paper coming out
about using crispr in a new
species and so this is really
exciting and this is really cool
and again I talked about this a
little bit in the but the reason
why this is cool that making DNA
Cuts is really important is
because this is a
really powerful tool to be able
to figure out what a gene does
at its most basic level and so
again if you have a car and you
open up the hood the car and you
don't know what any of this
stuff inside does you can take
it out piece by piece
and figure out what system in
the car is broken and then you
know that that piece that you
took out is
somehow involved in that system
so we can do the the same thing
with DNA where if we want to
figure out what every Gene in
E.coli does we can break each
gene one by one and see what
happens to the E.coli and we can
figure out then what processes
those jeans were involved in so
this is a super powerful tool
for research we also of course
could use this in medicine and
we'll talk about this a little
bit later because I did get some
questions about this of if you
have a mutation that causes a
disease could we now go
in and in your DNA specifically
specifically cut out mutation
and somehow try and fix that
disease if that's something that
we want to fix and we'll talk
about that a little bit later
too and the answer seems to be
yes and there's some clinical
trials using crispr now which
are really cool Additionally the
fact that crispr is sort of like
search in find tool for your
genome it means we can do a lot
more than just cut it and break
your DNA we can also now cut a
specific area in put in a piece
of DNA that we want to do into a
really specific place or what we
can do is we can you know take
away Crispers cutting abilities
but we can attach a fluorescent
probe to it and so now crisper
can go in and find a specific
piece of DNA and make it Glow so
you can figure
out where in the cell that is or
we can use crisper there's now a
bunch of people using crispr in
viral Diagnostics to try and see
can we use Crispers a tool to
try and diagnose things
like covid-19 rapidly and
outside of the lab so there are
a lot of different applications
of this ability
to find and then cut or not cut
a specific piece of DNA or RNA
in the cell and again this
started off with sort of
one crisper caste system that
people were looking at
back in 2013 and 2012 but this
is not something we found
in lots of different types of
bacteria so we now have sort of
this whole toolkit
of different crisper cast
proteins that do slightly
different things and we can
use in slightly different ways
and not only that we but we've
been able to modify them in the
lab to make them work in better
in different ways so that we can
do things like like nice bass
editing and based switching so
really a revolutionary tool that
has a thousand different paths
we could take
it on that that is really really
cool so yeah Kimberly just ask
do all bacterial species have
the system or only specific
bacterial species it's actually
a great question I know that
many do so there are many
different types of crisper
systems it's not just in one
species but I don't want to go
out to I don't want to say that
all of them do because all is a
very specific word and I'm sure
there's probably some out it
doesn't but many of them do have
this sort of viral immune system
using crispr so another quick
question before we get into the
big list that I have how
long does the guide RNA how long
is the guide RNA so typically
it's somewhere in the range of
about 20 base pairs is the piece
of guide RNA that's being used
to find your
target so that can confer a lot
of specificity if you're trying
to find a specific location
in a genome so you have 20 base
pairs about that you're playing
with their
that's trying to find a specific
piece of DNA there are four
possible bases 80 C and G that
can go into or you because it's
RNA a you see Angie that can go
into that place so there's a
mathematical number of exactly
how many combinations there are
that I can't do in my head right
now but you know if you think
about how many times that
specific piece
would show up in the genome it's
going to be pretty small so you
can get pretty specific cutting
however that doesn't mean
mean that you might not get
something called
an off-target effect and this is
something we talked about a lot
when we talk about crispr is
if you have this guide RNA is it
possible that it's going to
recognize a similar sequence
somewhere else in the genome and
make a cut some place that you
don't want it too and the answer
is yes that is something that we
are concerned about is these off
Target effects but there's been
a lot of research that has gone
into figuring out if you make
the longer essentially you make
that guide guide RNA the the
mathematically smaller the
probability is that you're going
to find these matching regions
and also people have done a lot
of work on figuring out like
we're in that 20 base pair
sequence mismatches are more or
less likely to bind to specific
other places in the genome so
you can do a lot of modeling to
figure out where these off
Target effects might
occur or are most likely to
occur and you can design guide
rnas and better crisper caste
systems that
can reduce the ability of
getting those off
Target Target effects so that is
something that we are constantly
thinking about scientists are
constantly trying to optimize
for is how do we reduce the
possibility of these off Target
effects and we're not at the
point where there are zero
off-target effects yet but in
different systems we can get it
down to a really really low
percentage and we also are
creating better surveillance
systems to go into a genome that
we've edited and figure out have
there been off Target effects so
that's something that we
definitely keep in mind is where
else could we we be cutting and
looking for those places
somebody asked where I got my
PhD from that's a really easy
question I got my PhD in
genetics from Stanford so easy
answer all right so I want to
dive into some of the questions
that people have sent in for
beforehand now but
please keep sending in your
questions in the chat and also
as I'm talking if something
doesn't make sense please stop
me so one of the questions I got
on patreon was from
joshua those who asked if
crisper can be used to change
the word change the way that
screw worms breed or migrate
to lower their impact on
livestock and also about other
and I chose screw arms to talk
about because screw worms are a
crazy story the way that we have
tried to control them over the
years so if you don't know what
they are
they're a parasite that eat live
and I want to keep that as tame
as possible but they're a really
really big agricultural pests
and they can also affect humans
as well so for decades now the
way we've eradicated
them to the best of my knowledge
in I think there was another
outbreak in Florida but we've
eradicated them in North America
and Mexico and moving down
towards Panama bye creating
breeding a bunch of
screw worms and then radiating
males and then
taking those mail male now stare
worms and dropping them out of a
plane over the Panama Colombia
border I believe
so we're essentially creating
like this wall
weekly we are weakly dropping
those out of planes on to this
border to
create a wall of sterile males
so that females will breed with
these sterile males and then
will not have more
screwworm worm larvae babies
eggs I don't know much about
their reproductive cycle but so
this is a really
really cool cool and interesting
technique that we've used but
there has been some research
done in to okay can we use
crisper to optimize
this system so rather than
breeding them all and then I
believe we use x-rays to radiate
them to create these sterile
males can we use crisper to do
this instead and so I found a
paper from Paulo at all that
reported the first successful
use of crispr cas9 in the New
World screwworm fly and so what
they did is they actually
actually haven't
it to create sterile screw worms
yet but what they did is they
targeted a color Gene in these
screw worms so that they could
very easily track just by
looking at the screw rooms
whether or not their Gene
editing had worked and they
found that it was
successful and that they could
maintain that Gene editing or
that edited Gene in a population
of for 15 Generations which
demonstrated that the crispr
induced mutations or
or stable so there is a lot of
work going into Pest Control
in things like screw worms tick
populations mosquitoes radiate
or are 80 and what are the
ooh that's a great semantics
question that I cannot answer
for you without Googling so
maybe somebody else can Google
that but they because yeah it's
probably irradiated sorry so
they are trying to use
crisper in these and other pests
to see if
that's a possibility to manage
them and at the beginning this
is still very much a sort of
proof of concept thing it does
it is not in practice yet but
they have so far shown that yes
they can use a crisper caste
system in the screw rooms and
they can keep those edits table
in a population for up to
Fifteen Generations so that's
pretty cool and I think that
that is sort of one strategy
going forward that might be used
to try and control these
populations which is pretty cool
oh you're welcome from for
answering that
was a great question my love
I've also put in the description
of this video below a bunch of
links to
the sources that I looked up for
talking about all these answers
so if you want to read more
that story I've put both a link
to a great Atlantic story about
what we're currently doing to
control these populations and
also a link to a think a science
news story about this paper that
just came out looking at the
screwworm and another what is
this other fly
fly the
in sheep below fly and so those
are all down in the links below
if you want to read any more
later on oh all right Kevin
irradiate exposed to radiation
similar treat with radiation or
x-rays Okay so it's irradiate
not radiate my apologies
all right so somebody in the
chat just asked are there
limitations with crisper and so
oh yeah radiate to spread from
the center to the radius of
something interesting so there
are a lot of limitations to
crisper and I think
we're going to talk about at
that as we go through some more
of these questions but one of
the ones that I think it's
important to think about is that
many of the questions that came
in and that I'm seeing here to
our about
you know that then you make a
good point there
is that if you want crisper to
work in a
Cell you have to get crisper to
that cell to make a cut
imagine trying to do that in a
whole organism
it's really hard to get
something to reach every single
cell and so you know I think
in some of these sort of pop
culture iterations of crisper
and I am on an upcoming
episode of the bad science
podcast talking about Crispers
usage in the movie Rampage
there are there's this idea that
you know you get one dose of
crisper you get like a whiff of
crisper and suddenly every cell
in your body is mutated
and that's really not how how it
works because you have to
imagine that you have billions
of cells and getting to each of
them is going to be hard and so
a lot of the clinical trials
using crispr that are in
practice now are either taking
things like stem cells out of
your body modifying those cells
with crisper and putting them
back in or reaching easily
reached tissues so one of the
big crisper try or it's not
actually a big crisper trial but
one of the current crisper
clinical trials
is using it in a form of
blindness they're injecting a
crisper containing viral Vector
into the it's a subretinal
injection so they're injecting
it into the eye and one of the
reasons why this is a good first
trial of using crispr is that
it's easy to reach your retina I
mean your eye is kind of like a
bowl of jelly and so it's it
seems scary but it's easy
to actually inject it into that
location whereas it's a lot
harder to reach say every cell
of your brain so there are
a couple of of areas in the body
that are kind of easy to reach
one of them is actually your
liver because your liver
processes so much
in your body that if you ingest
something or if you get a shot
of something or something's in
your bloodstream it's probably
going to end up in the liver at
some point so the liver is also
a Target that I personally think
we'll probably pop up in the
next few years is something that
we might be able to Target with
crisper just because it's easy
to get stuff there but if you
want to again you know you want
to treat an eroge disorder say I
think that's going to be
something that will see much
farther in the future because
reaching every cell of the brain
is so much harder than reaching
as something like your retina so
so yeah I think that's one of
many limitations of crispr is
that you have to be able to get
it to the cells that you want to
edit and that can be difficult
if we're thinking about future
human applications also also in
in the lab again off-target
effects are another big
limitation of crisper that is
getting smaller every day as we
get better with it but I think
that you know it's something to
keep in mind that it is an
incredibly precise DNA scalpel
there are sometimes these off
Target cuts and so
you know it's something that you
have to keep in mind and think
about as a potential limitation
Okay so Sarah
gay on
on youtube I you asked about
using crispr to combat cancer so
this is a really cool topic that
want to talk about because again
some of the current crisper
clinical trials are looking at
cancer and so I have a couple
of slides here that oops
I want to use to show this and
so this one is from cancer.gov
cancer.gov and so this this is
one of an infographic of
how some of these crisper
clinical trials are working
where they first
remove blood from a patient to
get T cells which are a type of
immune cell they take those T
cells out and then they insert
gene they cut another three
genes and then they take those
crisper edited
T cells and they put them back
essentially into a blood
transfusion and they put them
back into the patient
it's a little fancier than blood
transfusion but the idea is that
now what they've done in that
process is they've edited these
T cells to go and
specifically find and kill
cancer cells so there's this
method of doing this
and you may also hear of
something called a Carty T cell
stem cell karti cancer clinical
trial so this is another
similar idea of we're taking out
cells from someone we're editing
them to go and attack cancer and
we're putting them back in
someone someone and so these are
some of the clinical trials of
crisper that are happening today
which is really really cool that
we've progressed to that point
so they're doing things like
this for cancer and they're also
doing a similar treatment for
some blood disorders so things
like sickle cell anemia and beta
thalassemia where we're taking
out stem cells from a patient
we're editing them to create
a different kind of hemoglobin
than those patients are
currently producing and then
we're putting them back into the
patient when
when again one of the reasons
why we're taking it out of his
because it's hard to sort of get
at those cells in a patient
whereas we can much more easily
edit them in a dish and then put
them back in the patient but I
think that again it's really
cool to me that you
know crisper as a tool to edit
DNA was really just
discovered eight years ago and
we're already now in clinical
trials that are using it against
things like cancer so I think
that that's going to be one of
the earliest places where we see
success just because
we've already made made such
progress which is really cool
oh so Michael Harrison it just
asked is the most recent is most
research using crispr for a
single Gene edit or are we
already at the point of making
multiple non-adjacent edits and
so this is a really good
question because when you think
of you know you're adding and
crisper and you're adding in a
single guide RNA
to some system and I've talked a
lot about human so far today but
we also talked about screw em so
it could be any organism that
that one guide
is going to find and cut one
place but there are research
groups who are now adding in
multiple guide rnas at a time to
try and cut in multiple
different places now there is an
upper limit to this based on how
introducing the crisper and the
guide RNA to a cell or to a
system so again one of the
current viral vectors that were
using or one of the current
vectors that were using is a
viral Vector so things like a a
be viral
vectors and so these are are
viruses has that infect humans
typically don't cause much of
any sort of bad result
and so are safe
that we can sort of package DNA
into and then deliver it to a
cell population or a tissue or
an organism to try and have it
in fact that organism
and deliver its RNA so we're
essentially hijacking a virus to
give us a ride to
where we want to go and there's
an upper packing limit on that
so I worked with a these in my
and typically had sort of a
packaging limit of around 6,000
thousand base pairs and so to
give you an idea the cast
protein oh I'm gonna get this
number wrong but it's like a
couple thousand base pairs long
then you got to put the crisper
the guide RNA in there then you
gotta put like a couple
other things and so you sort of
reach that upper packaging limit
pretty quickly and so currently
what I've seen again if we're
using this sort of viral Vector
you know you can get a few guide
rnas in there but we are
are definitely not not at a
stage where you can make
hundreds or thousands of cuts at
the same time unless and I'm for
those of you who are going to
get me on the technical details
you could use something like a
X to go in and make you know
lots of different mutations in a
population of cells all one kind
of time but that's typically
when we're thinking about going
into making really precise
changes to a specific area
we're looking at a few a handful
of places all at one time but we
can't package more than one
and actually that's
a I talked briefly about the
blindness studies that are
right now the clinical trials
using crispr and they're
actually going in and they're
to guide rnas to cut here we've
got these little Pam sequences
which is a function of the it's
a piece of the guide RNA it's a
sequence that it needs to
recognize and so they are making
in fact two cuts around a
cutting out that piece of DNA
and then having the cell repair
it so that now these you can see
these two areas are like closer
together so they're cutting out
a piece of the gene that has the
mutation that's causing this
blindness and then having those
two pieces be sort of stuck back
together by the cell by using
two different guide rnas that
are going in and cutting those
two different locations so one
of the clinical trials right now
is using two different guide
rnas to cut a piece which again
is pretty cool cool is the
difference between cast proteins
is crisper only use cast nayanar
can it use other
cast proteins yeah so Cass
stands for crisper
Associated protein and so the
first one that was really
described in used in the
literature with Cass
9 from s pyogenes which is a
type of bacteria and this was
really the first one and I think
still probably the most widely
used crispr Associated protein
cast 9 but now that we have
found found the similar proteins
in other species and in other
bacteria there are lots of
cast proteins that are
used right now that work in
slightly different ways some
Target DNA some Target RNA we've
modified some of them so that
they actually don't cut and they
can just go and find a piece of
DNA and
stick to it so there are lots of
cast proteins that are in use
right now not just cast 9 but
cast 9 is the most commonly used
one it's
it's the most basic cast protein
and we love it but it is the
issue cast protein if you're
just trying to use crisper in
the lab you're probably using
cast 9 at least as a first go
all right another question that
I thought was very cool that
came in from Andre timoshev Tim
aschoff is can targeted DNA
be used instead to turn off
specific genes and get clues
about their possible possible
functions so if you're not
familiar with what DNA
methylation is it's like a
little tag that your cell can
put on some pieces of DNA to
turn off a gene so in our bodies
we have with the exception of
red blood cells the same DNA in
every single cell in our body
but ourselves look very
they have different functions
they have different ways that
they work and things they need
to do so not every Gene is
turned on in every cell so your
cell has your cells have
different ways of turning on or
off different genes genes and
one of the is that they do this
is methylation and so there are
now again because we've modified
it in lots of cool different
ways some crisper
complexes where we've again
attached one of those a
decaf 9 so this is that
deactivated Dead cast 9 which
can't cut to some kind of
protein that can affect
methylation so this is from a
recent science paper and or
sorry sciencedirect not science
the magazine and so
the S9 is attached to this Ross
one complex and so it can go in
and it can remove methylation
from Target genes and then allow
those Target genes to be turned
on so you
can go in and you can turn on
genes that were previously
turned off without actually
having to
cut that DNA but that's not the
only way that people are doing
this there's also things called
crispr a and crisper I for
Activation and inactivation
complexes which again work in a
really similar way you have this
D cast 9 which can go and bind
to DNA but not actually cut it
and then they're attached to
again proteins that will either
activate or
inactivate a certain Gene so
they'll attach to some sort of
effect or region Upstream and
they'll turn a gene on or off
selectively without you having
to actually cut that Gene
so yeah to answer your question
yes like we have ways of doing
this which
are pretty cool where we don't
actually have to cut the DNA but
we can go in and turn the Ina on
or off in a specific region and
turn those genes on or off to
actually see
what happens and to figure out
the function of the genes that
way which again I think is
pretty cool that you know this
started off hoop they're all my
notes this started off as
something that we were really
just looking at as a pair of
molecular scissors but now
they're not just molecular
scissors it's like really sort
of a molecular Swiss army knife
which is pretty cool so yeah
another very good question
so another question that I got
from seagull was
asking about a novel called
change agent by an author called
Daniel Suarez and the idea is
that somebody is infected with a
viral agent that changed their
DNA in Vivo so that he took on
the appearance of a totally
different person and the
question is How likely is
something like that to occur and
take place in the future and So
my answer
to that at its most basic level
is very unlikely and again part
of this
I was what because of what I was
talking about before where if
you want to change somebody's
entire appearance you have to
get crisper to every cell in
their body that you can see and
that's really hard but I wanted
to take a slightly more specific
example and think about hair
color so what if I wanted to use
crisper to become a blond
instead of bleaching my hair
could I do that
and again this would be really
hard to do because I would have
to get crisper to every single
one of my hair hair cells or the
hair follicle cells that are
generating my hair and giving it
its color and I would have to
change all of the different
genes that affect that hair
because I think the thing that
we don't stress enough is that
there are very few genetic
traits and also not all diseases
that are caused
by just a single gene or just a
single change in your DNA so for
hair color
there are I believe at least ten
or eleven different genes that
all all contribute a little bit
Ted the color of your hair in
the texture of your hair and
whether or not it's curly or
straight and so you would again
have to somehow get the cast
protein and a number of
different guide rnas to all make
different cuts in all the cells
of all my hair follicles to get
my hair to go from brown to
blond using crispr much easier
just to go and buy some bleach
so really it's not
something that we can see as
something where I could you know
take a
a viral Shh
shampoo and shampoo my hair in
suddenly get blond hair I think
that that is still a really big
stretch of sci-fi and a cool
thing like I think sci-fi is
cool I think it allows us to
explore a lot of these questions
but it's still a
really far way down the road
oh hello James so fun fact we
are looking at how crisper
changes phage therapy and
CF patients so we still don't
really know how and why bacteria
decide to use crisper as a
this mechanism and that's a
great point and I have family
members with CF so I didn't know
you were doing that research and
that's super cool but yeah it's
again it's still something that
there is this field has exploded
there is so much research
happening in it right now which
is really really cool but we
don't have the answers to all
that kind of stuff we don't
always know the how or the Y and
we're still trying to figure
that out but for me that was
super fun because
because being
NG genetics and being in
research at this time where we
were trying to figure all these
things out was a blast and I did
not study crisper but I did use
crisper at a few
points in my PhD to try and do
things in the lab and it was
just amazing that you know get
this little plasmid of DNA and
you can try and make you can
edit a genome that's really cool
to me altered carbon sounds much
plausible than other sci-fi
novels actually write altered
carbon so I don't know but I'm I
was looking for book
recommendations so maybe I'll
add that to the list is there
any concern of the body
rejecting modified cells
question from Roman I'm going to
kind of flip that question
on its head and connect that to
another question that I got from
see that was the only user name
that asked can crispy be used to
regenerate damages and so
when we think about trying to do
research so there are a number
of different animals that can
regenerate right you can imagine
thinking about a losing a limb
and then regrowing that lamb or
a starfish or is a lizard losing
its tail so there's a lot of
work going into regeneration
where we might use things like
stem cells to try and regenerate
a limb or maybe a nerve or
something again still very far
off but one of the ways that
is being proposed to work
in tandem with that and to help
that research is to try and
prevent rejection so so crisper
actually be used rather than the
concern of the body rejecting
the modified cells we can
actually use
crisper to try and prevent
rejection for things like you
know lab-grown tissues you know
could we use crisper to modify
the you know antigens in the
immune signals in response to
those lab-grown things that we
could then give back to people
so of course
if we are modifying a cell we
would want to look and make sure
that there's no rejection
issue but the cool thing about
these talking in a circle here
the cool thing about these
clinical trials is that they're
using the patient's own cells so
the patient's body should not
reject their own cells we are
modifying just one little piece
of it but we should not be
modifying the sort of
self recognition
proteins in the self recognition
system so this could be a great
way to sort of do it's almost
it's not quite self
transplantation but you're
taking the cells out from and
then you're putting them back
into so there should be a much
lower chance of rejection but we
could also use it in other
scenarios to specifically modify
those self receptor proteins to
try and reduce rejection in
other scenarios so
could be very cool
okay okay
couple more questions from here
I did mention in the first video
the ethical implications a
little bit of using
crispr in things like clinical
trials on consenting patients
versus the
sort of 2018 birth of two twin
girls who had
been Gene edited as embryos and
so it just got a couple
questions on that so I don't
want to spend a long time on
that but the idea really really
is that
is a fundamental difference
between editing genes in someone
that will only stay in them
versus editing something
known as a germ line cells so
these are things like
sperm and eggs that can then go
on to pass those changes on to
Future Generations
and doing work and things like
embryos and so there's been a
lot of discussion in the
scientific community about
whether or not we should or
should not do that work and the
sort of qualifications that need
to be met before we do that
because again they're things
like these off Target effects
that we need to be concerned
about that we we are making
great strides on but aren't
perfectly totally resolved at
this point and and suffice to
say the work that was done in
2018 bye Hood Zhong cui who's a
in China was not done correctly
it did not meet these criteria
both because
there were some ethical issues
around how he consented patients
patients he to a forge some
documents to try and push this
research through and the changes
that he made
were not great so one of the
twins that was born it was
actually kind Marik so she had
different changes in the two
copies of her
it looked like she had different
cell populations that might have
different changes made in them
by this crisper therapy and in
the other twin there were also
different changes that were made
there were changes made to one
copy of the gene but not
the other so there were a lot of
problems with this work again
this could be its own hour-long
discussion however the point
that I want to make here is that
there were already
guidelines in place from the
scientific community and the
ones that I pulled up right here
are from 2017 from the American
Society of human genetics that
said that at this time given the
nature and number of unanswered
scientific ethical and policy
questions it is inappropriate to
perform germline editing
the culminates human pregnancy a
whole bunch of other things and
then future clinical application
human Journey germline genome
editing should not proceed
unless adamant at a minimum
there is a
compelling medical rationale in
evidence-based base that
supports its clinical use and
ethical justification and to
transparent public process to
solicit and incorporate
stakeholder input so these are
the guidelines that were in
place in 2017 from just one
Society so this was a the
American Society of Human
Genetics x
but a new report has just come
out from the international
Commission on the clinical use
of human germ genome editing
that was formed in 2018 and this
report just came out in
September it is 225 pages
long so we're not going to go
through all of it but they lay
out really strict criteria for
what needs to be met before we
even try and do this and what
kinds of conditions this could
be used potentially on and so
have a whole bunch of different
recommendations again I've
linked that in the description
below if you do want to read all
225 pages as well as some
summary articles there's a great
one from
stat news if you just want sort
of an overview but the idea is
that the first recommendation is
that germline editing should not
proceed until it has been
clearly established that it is
possible to efficiently and
reliably make precise genomic
changes without undesired
changes in human embryos
and we haven't met that criteria
yet and So currently we should
not proceed with this and then
they also list a whole bunch of
guidelines were once that
criteria has been met how do we
decide which conditions this
should or should not be used on
and so some of the guidelines
that they set forth our that
there should be no other way of
ensuring a couple can produce
embryos without the disease
causing genetic variants they
have a number
of different criteria for the
guidelines of what those kinds
of conditions could be but again
225 pages I can't summarize all
of it here
thing that I think is really
important to think about is that
there are groups who are
thinking about
this and there are people who
are laying out what these
guidelines should be and looking
into the fact that we are at a
time where this is happening
whether or not it should or
should not be happening and we
need to be discussing what those
guidelines should be for moving
forwards and I think this
commission seems to do a good
job of this but I also want to
stress that I don't think that
these are guidelines that should
just be written by scientists I
really think that we need need
everyone to come together and
talk about this so we should
have scientists talking about
this we should have policymakers
talking about this but I think
it's also really impatient to
have or important to
have patience talking about this
to have caregivers talking about
this and to have the communities
that it will affect talking
about this and so you know
somebody left a comment on the
first video talking about how
the fact that the fact that they
have autism and that they're
worried about
people trying to fix autism when
there are a lot of members of
the Community who don't think
it's something that needs to be
fixed who don't want to be fixed
and find it you know insulting
that that's a way that people
would talk about the way that
they experience the world and so
I think it's really important
that we listen to those
communities and have them be a
part of the conversation because
I think that you know there are
sometimes people who have good
intentions who see a problem and
want to fix it when the people
who are experiencing that don't
want it to be fixed and don't
see it as a problem so
so I think that that's that's
important important to be
talking with these communities
and to have these conversations
and to inform people about what
the technology is so that
everybody feels comfortable
participating in these
conversations and feeling like
they understand the vocabulary
and that they can go
forwards forwards and talk about
that because again I think that
we can't we can't make decisions
about this without
including everybody especially
things like you know germline
editing that wouldn't just
affect the person they were
edited and they will affect many
generations generations that
edit will be passed down so so I
always a whole bunch to say that
there are a lot of people who
are thinking about this a lot of
people who are looking at
guidelines for when we should be
able to proceed with this what
we should proceed with it on
and I just think this is a wider
conversation that we all need to
be having
about when we want to use this
and when it's appropriate to use
this and when it's not
appropriate to use this so so
there are a lot of people who
are thinking about this is what
I want to reassure you you about
out that it's not just every
scientist for themself there are
people who are trying to figure
out what these guidelines are
and what they should be moving
forwards all right I want to
take a second just to look at
some of these questions in the
what about germline editing for
mosquitoes or other species
specifically pests so
so yeah this is actually a
really cool thing
so broadly not just thinking
about crispr there are a number
of groups who are trying to use
a bunch of different biological
techniques to create a sterile
mail usually sterile male
mosquitoes that you release into
population that then go on and
breed with female
mosquitoes to reduce the
population because this female
mosquitoes can't then go on and
produce eggs so this is
being tried in a number of
different places
are I'm pretty sure places in
Fresno where they've been trying
this with some certain types of
mosquitoes there I believe
places in Brazil maybe some
places in Florida we're trying
to do this to try and reduce the
of mosquitoes that spread things
like West Nile virus
zika was a big thing and malaria
so I think this is a really cool
biological technique in there
are now groups who are trying to
do this with crisper as well
whereas before there were some
that were infecting these with
wolbachia as KH by just brought
up to try and make these throw
mosquitoes so there are a number
of different strategies that
have been moving forwards and I
do believe people are trying to
use crisper for this now as well
and again I think this is a
place where
there's a lot of great potential
here but we also need to make
sure we're talking with the
communities where we're
releasing these things similarly
there's a group on Martha's
Vineyard and Nantucket that's
trying to use crisper or
thinking about using crispr
CRISPR modified mice to try and
this the tick population there
to reduce the spread of Lyme
disease and so I think these are
all really cool initiatives and
really great ways where we might
be able to reduce the number of
people who are getting these
diseases that can have really
serious impacts and so yeah the
research is in progress It's
still going I don't I'm pretty
sure that all of these
are still sort of in the study
phase versus in the just like
yes we're done we're releasing
it everywhere phase I know that
barely is I believe the the
debug program
it barely is the one that's
working up in Fresno which has
these like vans that go out and
release these mosquitoes so it's
cool and I think I'm really
excited to see the data as it
comes in from all these
experiments because there are
more of them popping up
including some that are using
crispr so okay yes malaria is a
parasite the gene editing
mosquitoes are incapable of
caring that parasite and yeah so
so Jim the Evo brings up Gene
drives which I don't wanna spend
too much time on today but the
idea of a gene Drive is that
you have a type of Chris
Percocet in a population that
will spread itself to other
copies of the genome so if it's
in one copy of the genome that
you get from you know a mom
sceeto or dad mosquito it can
spread it to the other copy and
then sort of propagate itself
forwards through a population
which is
really cool theoretically but
there are of course with
there questions about you know
what is this going to mean
environmentally environmentally
and how could this have an
environmental impact because
once you put something like a
gene drive out there it's very
hard to get it back so I think
they're really cool I think they
have a lot of potential
apparently there's a curse to
stop video about it which is
super cool they do an amazing
job and so so I haven't seen it
but would recommend you go watch
that video because I trust the
information that they put out
there so yeah it's a really cool
really cool technology but and
again I'm really interested to
see sort of how that research
research plays out we're things
move forward with that in the
future because if we can show
that we can use it
appropriately and very safely I
think it could have a big impact
on things like malaria spreading
mosquitoes other questions
this is so this is kind of a
silly question that zombiebrain
Studios sent in asking if
crisper could help raise an army
of Undead
giant space hamsters and I know
this sounds ridiculous but I do
want to talk through
through ways that this could or
could not work because I think
again sometimes these you know I
talked about how we're not
making unicorns but I think
sometimes these sort of
Fantastical examples really good
to talk about the limitations of
some of these Technologies
so the first thing here is if
you want to have sort of zombie
space hamsters
crisper when you think about it
requires a cell that it's in to
be alive because if crisper goes
in and it cuts a piece of DNA
actually the way that that it
prevents that
from working is because when the
cell repairs that DNA it usually
inserts a little typo it might
leave sort of a genetics scar
that will prevent that Gene from
going on to create a functional
protein or the correct level of
protein so first of all your
giant space hamsters can't be
Undead because their cells would
need to be alive to actually do
that sort of repair mechanism
and keep that a that
hamster doing stuff but what
about just giant space
space hamsters so the giant part
is actually the next part that I
think is kind of cool is that
one of
the things that people have
talked about with crisper is
this Gene called
myostatin so myostatin is a gene
involved in your muscles
it helps figure out how it helps
it response to growth hormone
and so it controls some of the
growth of your muscles very
simply and so there are
animals who have mutations in
myostatin myostatin they get big
muscles so you can look this up
they create things like hyper
muscular cows and dogs so they
look like if you imagine a cow
that has been going to like
bodybuilding classes like cows
who have certain mutations in
myostatin are
like really tough cows so so
could you potentially use
crisper to make a mutation in
a mouse myostatin Gene and and
get hurt has me hamster
myostatin Gene and get these
really beefy hamsters and it is
possible right especially if you
are doing this in sort of an
embryo stage of a mouse you
potentially hamster not mice my
apologies tiny rodents you could
potentially create a really
beefy hamsters so the
giant part I'm going to give you
you could create some giant
hamsters potentially
space hamsters I mean I'm going
to say that hamsters are
probably always going to need to
breathe air so just
floating around out there no but
like if you give them a little
space suit maybe so again one of
those things where I think it's
a silly example but thinking
about you know trying to create
a really strong
hamster is probably something
that we could do because we know
that there are some genes where
a single mutation
a single genetic edit could have
this large effect because we
have this prior research each in
things like cows and dogs who
have myostatin mutations and
again I bring
that up just because it's kind
of a silly
example but it is one where you
could probably make I mean
giant like we're not going to
make a person sighs Taps to
repay you could make like a
large hamster potentially and
also again because
again it hasn't come out yet I
can't wait until it comes out
but I was on this bad science
podcast talking about Rampage
where they make you know King
Kong sized gorillas and that out
of the question even with
myostatin mutations but you know
a large hamster possible
Sandcastle also brought up the
fact that who would have thought
a pair of yogurt Factory
scientists would almost change
the world and I do believe that
that's like an amazing thing
that I think this is like a
beautiful story of how science
that people did not set out to
go and find a a you know no
find a bacterial immune system
that they could use as this
molecular tool that was not the
of the research the goal of
their research was to look at
their yogurt
bacterial strains and figure out
can we use this to make better
yogurt and how can we sort of
make the yogurt creating process
easier and that research led to
revolutionary world changing
tools so I think that is super
cool and I think that's just
such like a a beautiful
you that often doesn't get told
about crispr I feel like when
people talk about crispr they
start at down and sharp NTA a
lot but this came from yogurt
biologists and so I just think
that that's like a wonderful
story of how science actually
happens and how science is
actually done so so yeah I think
that's really cool I think
that's sort of a lovely lovely
point about crispr is that it
came from this research and also
is a really good point for why
basic research is really
important because you don't I go
into research knowing what's
going to come out of it on the
other end and some of the
biggest like most revolutionary
things we have came from basic
research that wasn't you know
to try and figure out like what
we're trying to cure cancer with
this one thing it came from
somewhere else in the research
involved when you figure it out
more about the world around us
and how it works and these
hidden immune systems and
bacteria could then go on to do
this whole thing so I think
that's really cool but I do
think again one of the reasons
why I love the fact that Doudna
and Charpentier
the Nobel Prize is that they saw
the possibility of This research
and they turned it into this
cool tool and I think taking
that step is big and I don't
know I I could only dream to be
as creative
and intelligent and smart to be
able to see one thing and then
you know see that next step and
see its potential
like I hope that I have such a
creative idea one day so I think
that's really cool and yeah
it's a part of the we that I
love and yeah crispr is the
future but crispr is also the
now like we are using this
currently every day in research
and in education and in clinical
trials for medicine and in
diagnostics for things like
and so crispr is the future but
crispr is also the now and I
think that's really really cool
and yeah I
think Justin I think
you make a good point so a lot
of people did to this discovery
didn't repent EA were really the
champions of crisper actually
again in sort of preparing for
this I tried to steep myself and
crisper media and so I was
listening to a podcast this
morning while I was walking the
dog with doudna talking about
the fact that she really made it
a point once you realize the
possibility of this to go out
and talk about it and you know
to try and introduce people to
the idea of what it is and so
she started the integrative
genomics Institute the IGI IGI
which is really be cool and you
should go check out the get an
amazing web page with all kinds
of resources but yeah I think I
think for me I mean I'm a
science Communicator I love
talking about science but I
think it's so important to have
the scientists talking about it
too especially if you have
something that can be so
revolutionary and so
life-changing like it is huge to
have scientists go and talk
about their research it's really
important because I mean I
personally think that if you
don't if you can't talk about
the science that you've done
there's no point having done it
because in that can mean
different things you have to if
you do science you have to be
able to tell it to other
scientists in that can be
writing a paper or going to a
conference that
a really important you have to
tell people about what you've
done or they can't build on it
but I think for something like
this it's also really important
to go and talk to society about
it again because as we're making
decisions about this moving
forwards we need everybody to
participate we really need
everybody to think about this
going forward so so yeah II I do
really appreciate that
she was a big champion of this
and also in that podcast I found
out she wrote a book how did I
not know that she
wrote a book and I immediately
ordered it this morning so
hopefully more science book
reviews coming soon Jason just
said it seems that Crispers more
often utilized in animals that
implants is there reason behind
this I actually don't have stats
on what that percentage is but
it is commonly used in plants
there's a whole again we could
talk for another hour
hour about sir
modified organisms and crisper
being used in agriculture but I
just listened again I'm going to
tell you about more podcasts I
just listened to the gastropod
podcast on crisper and they were
talking about about crispr being
used in things like ground
cherries which are kind of a
tomato like organism to be able
and make changes that make them
easier to grow in easier to
harvest in a couple of years
versus traditional breeding
which would take that something
like you know a decade or two
to sort of more traditionally
breed breed organism or breed
plants together whereas now you
can really specifically go in
make changes and do this very
so I think it is being used
pretty commonly in Plants now
but yeah I don't have specific
stats on exactly what percentage
of plants have been modified by
crisper and which ones are what
percentage of animals but yeah I
mean it's being used in a ton of
different species including
plants and animals and bacteria
it's really really cool cool how
build a design a guide sequence
D build it in the lab or bite
from an outside company this is
a great question because I think
it really gets to the heart of
why crispr is so easy to use
that you just need a text file
on your computer so if
you know the Genome of the thing
you're trying to cut and you
have figured out that you want
to cut in a certain region that
is a text file that is an atcg
file of what that place that you
want to cut looks like or what
that Gene looks like
and there are are a number of
computational tools right now
that you can use to find out
what the most Optimum region in
that area would be to design
this guide so you're optimizing
for a bunch of different things
you're optimizing
against these off Target effects
you're optimizing for Regions
that have
again this Pam sequence which is
just a little sequence that the
crispr needs to recognize or the
cast protein needs to recognize
but there are a ton of free and
available programs you can use
to develop this and then you
just need to order that piece of
DNA that that little guide
sequence from a company there
are lots of companies who make
this and of course you have to
put that into a plasma you have
to get it into a delivery system
somehow you have to think about
how you're getting both the cast
9 and the guide RNA into
whatever you want to modify but
really designing it like that
actual building designing is as
easy as modifying a text file
and sending it off to a company
that will put those string those
little A's T's C's and G's
together for you and that really
is a cheap process SS I mean we
used to order all goes like that
for under
a hundred bucks in the lab which
sounds expensive now that are
not in the lab anymore but in
lab money research is expensive
that's pretty cheap so that
process is pretty
straightforward and easy to do
versus the tools that came
before crisper so things like
tailings and zinc finger
nucleases where you had to
essentially build specific
proteins for each little place
you wanted to cut and that was
very expensive it was bulky it
was slow so going from that
where it's a law money I mean
thankfully people had almost
stopped using those by the time
I got to grad school I never
used one but yeah it took like a
month for the
company to get it back to you
whereas you can order guide RNA
and probably get it the next
day depending on how close you
are to the facility so it's made
so much cheaper so much more
efficient and so much easier to
use because you just got to send
him a text file which is pretty
cool okay yeah
cast my attend a this is almost
being left behind already by
others like cast 12a and so yeah
I totally agree oh yeah IDT I
love IDT there one of the places
that has pre-designed all goes
for guide rnas or you can order
your own from IDT that's where
we ordered all of our Allah goes
but yeah again like I think I
think that's the important thing
is that you know we think of
cast 9 and guide rnas but that
was just the beginning the
number of different
cast proteins we found of
different modifications people
made to it we've really opened
this up to a whole
world of new tools and new
discoveries so yeah it's
it's moving fast how could you
use crisper to determine if a
certain disease
has a genetic origin
it seems like there would be a
long change of cause effects
from DNA to disease Michael you
are correct and this is one of
the coolest things about
research is that you know you're
always constantly building
evidence for something so so one
of the
again one of the ways we figure
out what a gene does is we break
it and we see what happens but
in the clinic so I worked in a
lab that did a lot of
translational work where we
would sometimes you know see
patients who
had a new mutation that we had
never seen before and we had to
figure out was that mutation
causative for the disease that
they had or was that just some
unrelated mutation that they had
because we all have mutations in
our genome you know
mutation is kind of a scary word
and I try and use variant I try
and use variant when I talk
about it because it's a much
less scary word but it just
means you know we all have
different variations in our
genome that either we've
inherited from our parents or
that have happened new in US so
if you look at a person you
can't just say really easily
that's specific mutation has
caused their disease so so what
we do is we can do a number of
things in the lab to try and
figure out like okay well does
this mutation caused that
disease and again before crisper
this was really
hard to do creating a specific
mutation in say say a so-called
nirmala model or in a yeast was
but now what we can do is if you
know let's say that I have
a mutation in my looking at a
plant in my plant G and I have a
mutation of my
plant Gene and so I'm growing a
plant out of my head I was weird
example what we could do is we
could take some of my cells in
the lab or we could take cells
from somebody else in the lab
and in a dish we can use crisper
to cut the plant Gene and
to insert the same mutation that
I haven't okay do these cells in
the dish with that mutation grow
the plant and without the
mutation not grow the plant what
a weird example I just decided
choose for that but using crispr
we can make specific mutations
in models so these can be in
cell culture these can be in
bacteria these can be in mice we
can cut the
gene in mice and put in that
specific mutation that I have in
their plant Gene and see does
the mouse grow
a plant so crisper really lets
us do this much much easier and
so so in that determination
process there are a lot of steps
so you know you'll want to see
first at just a modeling step
you can say okay
we'll do we suspect that this
specific change is going to have
any impact on the RNA that this
Gene produces do we suspect that
it's going to have an impact on
the protein it produces and then
we can go and look at that so
I'll put in a plug
for one of my papers from my PhD
was a new method of looking to
see if a specific change in this
in this patient that we had
never seen
before changed how her RNA was
spliced together and in fact it
did and so you know we can look
at the RNA level we can look at
the protein level we can look at
a wholesale level we can look at
it at a model organism level and
so we have all of these
different pieces of evidence
that we pull together to finally
be able to say okay we have some
level of confidence that this
variant that you have is what is
causative for your disease and
that can be really important for
a patient because that can both
down the road allow us to look
Kitt potential Therapeutics and
maybe these are genetic
Therapeutics but this can also
be a small molecule therapeutic
that says like okay you know you
have mutation in this Gene and
we know that
drug X modulates how that Gene
works and so we're going to try
and give you that drug it can
also be really beneficial
diagnostically so if you have a
and you have pretty good
evidence that the variant that
you see in them is positive for
disease you
can do what's called Cascade
screening and so this is where
we screen your your first degree
tips to see if they also have
that same mutation and see if
they might also be at risk
for developing this disease and
so that can be really important
you know for finding
a disease early in those other
family members or for again
things like going forward and
thinking about having children
you know if you have a mutation
that is
recessive you know and you want
to see if your partner also has
that mutation before you have
children that's something we can
do and sort of sort of
pre-pregnancy genetic testing so
there are a lot of different
steps in there but crispr is
really cool because now we can
go in and really quickly and
easily make those mutations in
these models so that we can look
and see does this variant have
an effect ooh and crisper based
antibiotics there are a whole
bunch of crisper based
antibiotics that people were
thinking about using so if you
think about antibiotics are
amazing they have saved millions
of lives but but we are
developing you know we've used
them a lot we are developing
because of that there are
strains of antibiotic-resistant
bacteria that are evolving
that's what I'm trying to say so
there are people who are trying
to use crisper to create
antibiotics that could be
specific to a certain type of
bacteria so perhaps you could
take this antibiotic and not
also kill all the healthy
bacteria in your gut which is
you know one of the bad side
effects of taking antibiotics
now is that often you know you
can have some GI symptoms
because I've also taken this non
specific antibiotic that kills
all your other good healthy gut
bacteria so people are trying to
use crisper to create specific
antibiotics that could go in and
just Target the strain of
bacteria that you're looking at
so I don't have any specific
notes about that yet so I don't
want to say anything wrong but
yes there are people working on
crisper based antibiotics and I
think that that is
a huge potential Avenue for
antibiotics because trying to
find a new one in lab or trying
to find what a nature is a
long way arduous process so if
we can just design one with
crisper that would be much
cooler so so we're about 10
minutes passed and I thought we
were going to stop now and I
don't want to Babylon forever
also because I now need water
but please keep sending
in if you have them I'm happy to
keep answering these questions
in the comments of this video
for the next couple days I'll
try and be pretty active in
there and answering them and I
also do try and always go back
and answer questions on all
videos to if people leave them
so so yeah
I this had no structure and I
just babbled about crispr and
your questions for an hour and
ten minutes so I hope that you
learned something I hope this
was helpful and I hope I
answered some of your questions
questions but yeah
thank you so much for joining me
if you're still interested in
this I've put a bunch of links
in the description below about
more crisper resources and you
know hopefully those can be
additional further reading if
you want to read it I'll keep
answering questions there's
going to be this podcast coming
up which is soon there might be
another video in the works that
is coming out soon so I'll keep
adding crisper resources for me
down there as well and as always
you can find me across a bunch
of social medias so I'm here on
YouTube but
you know I post pretty
frequently I'm sure you've
noticed that so I'm also on
Twitter I'm on Instagram and now
I'm on Tick-Tock where I post
almost every day so if you want
more of me babbling about
science you can find me on any
of those platforms the username
is just my name Alex Denis in
any of those places and I'm
telling you this now so that you
can hold me accountable to
actually doing it is that this
was sort of a surprise video in
a surprise live stream because
the crisper Nobel was announced
but I've been planning
on doing another sign
Series where I do a short video
and then
a live about mRNA vaccines for
things like covid-19 so I just
did last week a whole hour
webinar with Mini PC r– bio
about sort of an overall look at
what our vaccines and how
they're being used and developed
against covid-19 but I want to
do one on my own just
specifically talking about mRNA
vaccines because they are one of
the candidates that look like
they're going to be coming out
of clinical trials soon and I've
already gotten a lot of
questions about them come across
social platforms so if you're
interested in that let me know
because that will motivate me to
actually create and upload those
videos so hopefully they'll be
one of those again coming soon
and yeah thank you so much for
joining me today you sent in so
many great questions this was
I hope to do another one of
these soon and until then wash
your hands where your mask get a
flu shot and vote if you are in
the United States and you're in
a little Jewel eligible
voter make sure
vote so thank you all for
joining me go forth do science
and yeah crispr crispr is
amazing and I love it bye

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