ok welcome back so let us start our discussion
for where we left in the previous module we
looked at the indian a specific scenario and
some comparison with the global ah scenario
in terms of e waste management now will start
it in terms of that why questions so why e
waste management is important what are the
concern so we will start looking at what are
the elements of concern what are the chemicals
of concerned in terms of electronic waste
management ah
so if you look at we put there are several
elements from the periodic table and again
these i am not going to ca cover in like line
the line from each of these elements i will
provide you this slides so that you can read
it and on especially on the danger part so
we will just cover the first two columns in
more detail and then just very cells quickly
will talk about this third column ah in in
this in this but for the from this table we
have we have actually the list is pretty long
so it is started with and the list has been
provided in alphabetical way so it does not
mean that arsenic is the number one element
that shows up in electronic waste actually
lead is where we see most electronic waste
the higher amount is lead but in terms of
since we listed it we put put them in alphabetical
order so a electronics that we carry ah fair
phone i i ipad or anything i will a laptop
and other stuff carries many of these ah heavy
metals or metalloids arsenic is used in semiconductors
we we use them in semiconductor diodes microwaves
l e ds and solar cell the solar cell also
uses ah arsenic and we all know is we are
sit like i am talking to you sitting in west
bengal and west bengal and bangladesh ah we
do have several areas of arsenic pollution
issues there is even in bihar we have arsenic
pollution madhya pradesh rajasthan so there
are pockets of many places in the country
where we have arsenic issues but most of those
arsenic are geo genic not we are not talking
about arsenic from electronic waste has went
there but arsenic is a potential carcinogen
it is a chronic exposure to arsenic can lead
to various disease and also at least can cause
lung cancer and can often be fatal
so ah for this part this this column i would
let you ah read it it is all a general description
i am just all highlight few points over there
then barium barium it is a used in electron
tubes filler for plastics rubbers lubricants
additives beryllium which used in switch boards
and printed circuit boards we have brominated
flame retardants brominated flame retardancy
when you are using your laptop especially
if a carrying the laptop and you on your lap
laptop is called because you work you can
put that the small computer on your lap and
work from there so this so when you are working
like that you see that many after maybe a
fif half an hour forty minutes depending on
the model and make of the ah laptop you start
feeling the lot of warm its a very warm there
because sim it is it is it is it started getting
hot
so when it starts getting hot there are it
if this if there is a trigger of any ah kind
of short circuit or anything happening it
may catch fire to prevent that we use this
brominated flame retardants so preventing
of flame retardant as you can see when is
it retarding the flame so you are not let
in the flame to ah propagate so that is why
it is a brominated flame retardant its a halogenated
compound bromine is a halogenated compound
and used in casing circuit boards ah cables
p v c cables so ah and then here it is leads
to ah if you at let us say lower temperature
releases toxic emissions dioxins which can
lead to a severe hormonal problem so here
for beryllium we know the chronic beryllium
disease the disease which primarily affects
the lungs it also causes skin disease and
for barium it can leads to brain swelling
ah muscle weakness damage to heart liver is
spleen so they have seen the blood pressure
changes ah changes in the heart from ingesting
barium so all these have certain a concern
that is why we are worried about electronic
waste management electronic with proper management
of e waste because we have all these pollutants
there and not only on this we have in sorry
we have these pollutants there and then that
leads to several danger that the health impact
is there from there ah from these pollutants
so just again continuing the list ah if you
can go to the next so we have cadmium chrome
which is chromium cobalt copper lead again
these are in alphabetical order cadmium nickel
cadmium batteries you always hear about cadmium
ah nickel cadmium batteries which is batteries
it is used in batteries used in pigments ah
solder the soldering which is done on the
printed wire board ah circuit boards computer
batteries cathode ray tubes cadmium is used
a lot cadmium is a carcinogen as you can carcinogen
means is something which can cause cancer
long exposure also cause itai itai disease
itai itai disease means the our body actually
gets confused between calth cadmium and calcium
though all of us has a looked at periodic
table at some point in our life so if you
remember from the periodic table that cadmium
and and calcium they are they they are together
a very close to each other ah in the periodic
table so our body gets confused between cadmium
and calcium and it thinks that it is calcium
we all need calcium that is why when you are
young your mother was kept on telling you
to eat milk ah sorry drink milk because milk
has ah calcium there we need calcium for the
growth of our bone growth of the teeth and
later on in our life may when we get get older
many times we use calcium supplement as well
to keep our bones is in a good condition
so but if the body gets get confused between
calcium and cadmium and cadmium gets into
our body so whenever we need calcium the cadmium
goes there but the cadmium does not do the
function of calcium so its becomes our bone
becomes brittle and it it starts creating
problem so in that case what is what happens
is it is a it is a it is leads to a lot of
problem in terms of ah in terms of like a
bone bone damage and other stuff so that is
why cadmium its it is it is a it is a it is
a very much of a concern in terms of electronic
waste ok let electric cadmium coming from
the e waste then chromium is used in dyes
pigment switches and also in solar panels
cobalt is used as insulators so cobalt is
used as a insulator copper ah copper wires
so their copper ribbons circuits pigments
led which is number one number one concern
in terms of electronic waste is because of
led led is a neurotoxin it affects kidney
reproductive system it also damages the brain
development
so it is that is why we if you go to a petrol
pump today you when you fill up your car car
or a bike you see on the label there it says
unleaded gasoline why it says unleaded gasoline
that means at some point of time we had lead
in that gasoline is not it in that is why
it says unleaded why we got rid of ah lead
from the gasoline so all this smoke pipes
the exhaust pipes of this car or the bike
it has a lower level and when our kids are
walking on the road they are also at that
level too and then when this is smoke coming
out and if it gets ingest it goes into the
lungs of goes into the body of these small
kids it affects their brain development so
it is a neurotoxin that is leads is ah cre
creates problem that even the whole roman
there is a theory that the roman empire ah
that collapsed because of because of the consumption
of alcohol in a leaded vessel so with the
leaded vessel alcohol low p h led got released
into the into the alcohol and people drank
those alcohol and they become their brains
got damaged they because started acting crazy
they start fighting them on each other and
the roman empire collapsed
so that is one theory may be true may not
be true but lead does lead to neuro [vocalised-noise]
lead exposure does lead to impact on brain
development its a well established fact with
lots of research done on different different
subjects and there are some ah even data ah
like an epidemiological data which supports
that so lead is a big issue that is why this
whole issue of electronic waste is started
then you have others its there you can you
can read about these for the other impact
so essentially what all these ah pollutant
does it has some sort of negative impact on
our body so that is why we are worried about
them then we have lithium ah liquid crystals
are there lithium is there mercury another
big ah ah pollutant mercury ah which is present
nickel is present so components in the mercury
is there in copper machines the steam irons
they are also there in batteries ah they are
there in the batteries in clocks pocket calculator
switches l c ds they affect the central nervous
system kidneys and the immune system nickel
lung cancer nose cancer so and lithium is
a corrosive to the eye
so all these have certain negative impact
and lithium is lot of in mobile telephone
we see lithium there photographic equipment
video equipment batteries lithium is there
so that is lithium batteries so you always
hear about that so all of these had certain
negative environmental impact in our human
health impact that is why we are worried about
that then p c bs plastics selenium ah so p
c bs is your polych polychlorinated biphenyl
p c b was very popular ah again used as a
ah it to prevent any sorts of fire and other
stuff in transformers ah capacitors it is
a softening agent for paints glue and plastic
it is a serious it says has serious non cancer
health effects including effects on immune
system reproductive system nervous system
endocrine systems so these are all documented
p c bs are plastics circuit boards cab cabinet
selenium uses in fact photocopies fax machines
so on and then they have their negative health
impact right there
so ah you can so these are and the list actually
there are some more which will look at then
we have silver ah zinc toner dust americium
a chlorofluorocarbon so they again they are
used in capacitors which is brass alloys toner
cartridge medical equipment fire detectors
ah chlorofluorocarbon uses a cooling unit
insulation form and they have certain health
in like a health impact from these which is
listed over here ok so it is listed over here
as you can see so there is a cardiac like
a from silver zinc toner dust americium chlorofluorocarbon
similar to what you saw from the other so
what we are trying to get out of these long
list of pollutants they are all there on the
periodic table they are they are used in electronics
in different electronics in different proportion
in different quantities for it the function
that we want out of the electronics these
are needed over there so first they they also
have some value there that cell it most of
the electronics items are a bit are you can
say things are getting cheaper but there is
still they are comparatively a pricey items
if you go to buy a good cell phone is still
fourteen fifteen ten to fifteen thousand rupees
so it is a it is a it at least and then of
course there is no limit ah you can go and
buy for several lakhs as well but ah this
these heavy metals are present on those electronics
now when you discard them or when you put
them in a environment back they these will
leach off from these when doing the recycling
operation especially by the informal sector
they will leach off they will go into the
soil they will go into the water and then
we will have if we use that water if to drink
you are getting exposure to these heavy metals
and you saw all the dangers associated with
this different heavy metals if it goes into
the soil we grow our like a food on those
soil that food may have uptake because of
many plants have the plants also get confused
between calcium and cadmium like our body
does and so plant may think that especially
there has been documented evidence where they
saw that many ah paddy ah which is a staple
food the rice were found with cadmium we could
see cadmium showing up in rice thing and the
rice plant so the paddy thinks that cadmium
they cannot distinguish between cadmium and
calcium so again it will think we tend we
want if it is calcium is there its good is
not it
so but if cadmium shows up it is bad so that
is the reason we have to careful if it goes
to the soil it will have impact through the
food it every children has a hand to mouth
activity that is another impact we will talk
about this in that ah risk assessment ah video
and so this these are so essentially lots
of heavy metals and other pollutants which
is there an electronic waste ah we need them
because for the function to get out of those
electronics if managed improperly they have
they have a very high probability of contaminating
the water contaminating the soil and part
of it could go into the air phase as well
so we need to manage the electronic waste
properties to avoid the danger which has been
listed in the third column which i strongly
encourage you i did not go by line by line
on those i strongly encourage you to read
that you will have this as a this slide will
be available to you as a reading material
along with other reading material go through
that any question asked me on the pair on
the discussion forum we will be happy to answer
but so that is why we are that is the reason
we are talking about and the other side if
you look at these are heavy metals which are
being mined ah from mother nature being brought
into in our like a value chain in the economy
so there is a there is a money associated
with that if its somehow if we can recover
these heavy metals and bring it back into
the economy rather than dumping into the soil
dumping into the water dumping in the environment
or in a landfill say if we can bring it back
into the economy by doing this recycling and
recovery of these heavy metals we do not have
to go in mined improve we can use these heavy
metals we do not have to go in mined and some
of the other precious so the other precious
metals has not been listed here like a gold
is also present in a very ah ah minute quantity
we will talk about that ah as well in later
in this course
so so these are the reason why ah we need
to why we are looking at electronic waste
in terms of like a different elements present
different pollutant present so disposal type
what are the major disposal type incineration
ah things are being burnt many times it is
a uncontrolled burning ah of electronic waste
as i told you that will doing the discussion
forum will put some you tube link videos for
you to look at and where you will see that
e waste is just burn in an uncontrolled fashion
and that leads to if you burn ah at say uncontrolled
fashion it you can have like a brominated
flame retardants will can lead to extremely
toxic dioxins and furans p v cs will generate
toxic flue gas if you put it in landfill landfill
you have lead cadmi cadmium chromium mercury
all these things going in there p c bs p b
d es they they can go there landfills in the
the way the indian condition right now mostly
it is the dump site so if it goes to those
dump sites what it will lead to is leaching
of these heavy metals into the subsurface
and that will leach can potentially go to
the ground water and we can get exposed through
that
so it is again exposure through the contaminated
groundwater could be a problem recycling ah
we need to be careful in terms of the hazardous
emissions ah due to the recycling of plastic
halogenated heavy metals like cadmium and
other stuff we need to make it we need to
make sure the process is safe and proper so
shredding without proper disassembly that
can cause hazardous substance dispersed into
the environment so we need to be careful in
terms of hazardous associated within proper
disposal and then then it comes to that why
why we should focus on recycling ah we we
we do not want to put this electronic waste
in landfill that much are in generation we
should try to recycle as i said just earlier
few minutes back many of these heavy metals
and other elements present there they have
a value they have been mined from mother nature
and gone through all those refinery process
and then it is being used in e waste so rather
than putting it back into the ah landfills
or burn it and then make it unusable form
can we recycle and make it in a usable form
so landfill of e waste can lead to ah leaching
of lead and other things into the groundwater
lead is just used as an example here so that
is goes into the groundwater if the c r t
is crushed and burned it may emits toxic fumes
cadmium from one mobile batteries enough to
pollute six hundred meter cube of water so
one from your mobile phone the cadmium that
is present there if you just put it in a river
in a where the cadmium becomes available to
the river it can pollute six hundred meter
cube of water think about that and then so
there is a huge impact of health and environment
because of e waste around in terms of improper
management of e waste and right now barely
four percent of e waste produced in india
is recycled
so nearly ninety five percent is just getting
dumped ah because of the poor ah technology
and then things not getting into a proper
hands so that is why the e waste management
rules which we will talk about that ah twenty
sixteen came into being it first one was revoked
was in ah was in two thousand eleven which
was supposed to be implemented from two thousand
twelve ah unfortunately nothing much happened
then again in two thousand sixteen their rule
has been refined a little bit is and then
we are trying to implement it in the country
is we are struggling to implement it even
now but things are being tried to implement
it and there are a lot of new companies are
showing up in terms of the e waste management
companies are hopefully their market will
pick up and the registered companies will
get the job
so for ah there is a huge gap between the
generation and recycling of e waste and any
recycling is good as long as it helps the
environment so if recycling what do we need
to recycle to help our keep the city clean
provide value for obsolete electronic items
so we can use that many times if you have
say three ah broken down computers if you
can just salvage the material from there and
then you make a one working computer that
is ah that is actually refurbishment not recycle
but that that should also be encouraged and
then there are it can be sold at a cheaper
price on o l x or e bay and whatever you want
to do that and if you recycle if you keep
it in a within the loop you are avoiding health
hazards things will not go into water will
not go into the soil we have to organise the
informal sector that is the that is true for
municipal solid waste as well we have a good
or informal sector
especially in the indian context or maybe
some other developing countries context the
informal sector does a very good job in terms
of the collection of the garbage collection
of the recyclable material from the waste
stream including that for electronic waste
so electronic waste is this this kabadiwala
or the e waste recyclers those who have their
nice network they can come and collect the
e waste from you and then the problem and
with the problem comes in in when they are
trying to recycle when they start is starting
recycling up to dismantling it is fine it
is not too much of a of technical ah intensive
exercise dismantling you need only some screwdrivers
and some of the other tools to take take it
a part
so any electronic waste when say think about
let us let us take the example of a c p u
like the ah computer that a central processing
unit of a computer if you discarding that
you can unscrew it the top casing is mostly
it will be steel like a ah ferrous metal or
it could be plastics now a days but mostly
it is a steel ah which you saw in see in the
disposal stream so that can go to a steel
recycler and anything which is plastic and
go to a plastic recycler the problem comes
when we start looking at that motherboard
printed wire board and all those material
where we have lots of nest and lots of heavy
metals and other things present there
so we have to start recovering a stuff from
these and and there where we start when we
start recovering these we start using some
of these aquaresia which is a very concentrated
form of nitric acid and sulfuric acid we start
using some of these other ah extraction methods
without any environmental control without
even personal protective equipment and that
leads to all those exposure to the person
working there air pollution water pollution
and land pollution so if that aspect so if
somehow we can do a nice move like a marriage
of the informal sector and the formal sector
where this informal sector does the collection
part and brings it to the formal sector and
the formal sector can take care of let let
the ah low hanging fruit be with [vocalised-noise]
we have a recycling of ferrous metals already
happening in the country we have recycles
of certain types of plastics already happening
in the country
so let us that be handled along with plastics
along with the steel ah recycling the major
that stuff which is has those heavy metals
presents the printed wire boards and other
things motherboard other different types of
boards capacitors and batteries and all those
which is present that requires a specialized
recycling system and that when this informal
sector tries to do it they end up contaminating
a lot to the environment to avoid that if
we can get the formal sector helping the informal
sector in that aspect so again we have to
look at the how the economics will work right
now this informal sector they come to our
houses and we we even give them they they
even give us some money say if they take some
old cell phone from you they may give you
two hundred three hundred four hundred rupees
depending on how good that cell phone he he
or she is thinking about will fa fetch him
money because they will but if you go for
a formal sector which has set up a company
which has to follow is ideally they should
ah s p c be norm c p c b norm ministry of
environment and forest they have invested
lot of crores some rupees ah few crores of
rupees on that plant they may not be in a
situation to give you some money on the day
one they have to start making some money themselves
so there has a there will be a break even
time when they will break even and then they
will start making profit
so to expect getting little bit of money from
them to give you a product it is kind of little
bit too much so if you are especially if you
if you look at the developed countries like
if you are in canada and other places you
actually pay for e waste disposal rather than
getting money from e waste disposal so that
is where the problem comes people like us
does not have you always want little money
from everything and say and then the formal
sector cannot give give us the money because
they do not have money to because they have
to follow all the rules and regulations so
they have to spend a lot of money there but
in formal sector they do not have to follow
any rules in regulation so they are ok to
give you a few of like a little bit of money
and then we get this e waste from you and
try to recover whatever they can recover and
whatever they cannot they just dump it they
just dump it in the environment and that creates
a lot of problem and people like you and me
get affected
so we are then we pay the medical bills so
first we [laughter] get a little bit of money
from electronic waste and later on we as a
society i am talking about and then as a society
we ended up paying a little bit of like a
lot of money to all these hospitals so we
have to think what what we need should we
ah what is what would be best for the society
ah how to go about managing that part so that
is the of the organization of the informal
so getting this informal sector into the formal
sector and that that will lead to reduction
in the environmental degradation so that will
ah in terms of the recycling so the recycling
of e waste is the most preferred option in
terms of managing of e waste so that is in
terms of
so next in the in this series so far we have
talked about what is the e waste what are
the pollutants there in the indian scenario
global scenario how the e waste is changing
why we should be worried about it why recycling
is important what is the state of e waste
recycling in india right now ah then next
so we will it start thinking about if you
have to quantify e waste so think about that
if we have to design an e waste management
system for a particular city the first thing
first question that you will come to your
mind is how much is out there how much e waste
is there how to find out that number there
have been some studies done in the old times
but if you are if i just focus say if you
are focused in delhi city or kolkata city
or mumbai city it would be nice to know how
much e waste is produced in the city itself
so for that there is a method that will talk
about that is a quantification of e waste
and as you can see in here in terms of the
quantification of e waste just i will introduce
this topic and then will call cover this in
detail in the next video so in terms of quantification
what there are different methods out there
there are various evaluation methods are available
ah they are put in different groups there
are the disposal related analysis there is
a time series analysis disposal related analysis
what they do is they look at the e waste figures
obtained from collection collection the methods
treatment facilities disposal sites or they
get the data ah from from the disposal stream
so they get or they did requires empirical
data from parallel to estimate overall generation
so they will look at the how much is being
disposed and based on that they do some estimation
time-series analysis is essentially used for
projection we forecast the trend of e waste
generation by extrapolating the past data
so we take the historical data of the past
and then we try to extrapolate it in future
and then it can it is used to fill in the
gaps of past unknown datasets as well so that
is in terms of disposal related analysis time
series analysis so there are different methods
out there ah you can go on literature and
try to find that a lot of things are there
and then there is a factor models input output
analysis and so that is these are the four
major analysis methods that is used factor
model use determine factors for correlation
input output is this is used mostly for multiple
model variation you try to generate e waste
generation for the regional scale or the country
study we try to do that
so just wanted to introduce you to these four
concepts so that you can ah try to get some
more information about these different methods
i will encourage you to read say again this
is a specialized course this course is a specialized
force focused ah i would say it is mostly
for high which is fourth year undergraduate
students taking it as elective or masters
p h d student or some people working in the
professional so i do expect you to do some
of the reading on your own as well so certain
topics would be introduced here but we mean
we do not have time to get in great detail
on those topics and you can those of you who
are interested can research today with the
help of google you can actually find a lot
of information good information
so all these different four methods of estimation
and this is not only for e waste it is let
us say it is done for other ah scenarios as
well so i would encourage you to look at those
four methods so that when in the next video
when we used to look at the next video ah
you are a bit more familiar so we will about
these four method and then will discuss it
in more detail so with that let us close this
will continue our estimation of e waste in
the next and then we will have a case study
for the city of kolkata of how we can do a
ah e waste estimation there so for again keep
your questions active on discussion forum
we will definitely answer that and we look
forward to having your discussion give your
feedback along as the course is going on if
you want certain things to be ah more discussed
put it there will try to do it and anyway
we can help you to learn better that is always
will be our pleasure
thank you

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