Poultry Disease Prevention: A Healthy Start at Hatch | Fernando Lima DVM | Luis Valenzuela MSc
To prevent mortality, dysbiosis and wet litter from an early stage, birds need the right balance of intestinal microbiota bacteria. This start at the hatcheries, aided …
– [Ryan] All right, we're going to go
ahead and get started.
So, a very warm welcome to
all of our listeners here.
This is the 9th edition of our Antibiotic
Reduction Expert series brought
to you by Biomin.
Today's topic is poultry disease
prevention, a healthy start at hatch.
Now, in a change-up from our normal
format, we've brought in two experts,
both of whom are my colleagues from
Biomin, rather than our single speaker,
and so I'm going to introduce the first
one to you right now.
Fernando Lima is joining us,
a poultry technical sales manager.
Good morning to you.
– [Fernando] Good morning, Ryan.
– Why don't you introduce yourself to the
audience members who haven't met
you in person?
So Ryan said, my name is Fernando Lima.
I graduated as a poultry veterinarian
thirty years ago, and I've been in the
poultry business for nearly thirty years,
within Biomin for seven,
and I am…let's say consulting our
customers around Europe to provide
solutions and strategies to
[inaudible 00:01:06.583] the main problem
in the field… [crosstalk 00:01:11.172]
Yeah, that's great.
I know that our customers very much
appreciate that expertise that you bring
to them in the field and their operations.
Our second expert today is Luis
Valenzuela, who is a product
manager at Biomin.
Good morning to you as well.
– [Luis] Good morning, Ryan.
Good morning to the audience, Fernando.
– Why don't you tell us
a little bit about yourself?
– Yeah, it's a pleasure for me to be with
you today to discuss related topics
to poultry production.
As you mentioned, I'm the global product
manager for our product line PoultryStar.
I'm originally from El Salvador,
my background is a degree
in industrial management,
a bachelor in animal production focused
in animal nutrition for monogastric
animals, a master's
in [inaudible 00:01:57.298] nutrition,
and I've been with Biomin for already,
like, four years, nearly four years,
and I'm still fresh and motivated
as the first day.
– Certainly glad to hear that.
That energy just keeps going.
So, let's get into our topic, then.
We're looking forward to the perspectives
that each of you bring to this topic,
which as we said,
was poultry disease prevention.
Fernando, why don't you get us started
with a little bit of context about why are
we talking about disease prevention,
how it relates to our main theme,
which is antibiotic reduction,
and why "at hatch?"
What's so important about getting
an early start here?
– Yeah, to understand why antibiotics have
been used frequently,
and understand how the immune system
works, it's important just to understand
how the growth starts from
the very first beginning.
So, a healthy start at hatch is crucial to
understand how an immune system develops
from right away.
Whatever we do to enhance natural
[inaudible 00:02:57.631] will be the only
direction to get to build a healthy start.
And we have solutions,
we understand what's going
on in the field, so our goal is really to
focus on anything that could
help finesse this.
Okay, shall I start from the first slide?
Go right ahead.
So, the first point is to understand there
are different external and internal
factors that affect the
quality of day-old chicks.
Marked in red, the red circles,
we know that we can help on nutrition,
on management, medication,
on all therapies that could help
controlling [inaudible 00:03:38.886]
factors, however, and marked
in purple circles, we
cannot control the genetic.
But we can control the rest.
So the next slide will exactly…can be the
question, is there a single factor
to consider to ensure the good quality of
a day-old chick?
So first of all, it's important to
understand there are multiple factors
to consider to ensure day-old chick
quality, starting from the management,
because the management can control partly
the increase of bacterial load,
which is crucial for the animal's health.
The hatchery/egg sanitation we know they
play an important role,
not just for vertical transmission but
also for the general sanitation.
Eggs laid on litter is crucial for
breeders to avoid vertical transmission,
and the house down-time,
insufficient house down-time allows
bacterial populations in the house to
build after each [inaudible 00:04:32.730]
Poor litter quality and increased stocking
density is also frequently associated
with necrotic enteritis, for example.
With more [inaudible 00:04:40.604] in a
particular space and in intensive
production [inaudible 00:04:43.105]
there's more moisture that needs
to be dissipated, so this increased level
of moisture creates a favorable
[inaudible 00:04:51.891] to grow.
And high stocking density can also cause
stress, which leads to a
reduction in immunity.
So the diet is also widely recognized as
having strong impact
on [inaudible 00:05:03.625]
So, since indigestible dietary protein
cannot be broken down and absorbed in the
upper part of the digestive tract,
it can lead to high concentrations
of protein in the lower portion of the
digestive tract that can then act as the
substrate for the gut microbiota.
So the fermentation of these proteins by
these bacteria produces
unfavorable byproducts, such
as [inaudible 00:05:27.223] and ammonia.
And increase the pH of the lower part of
the intestinal tract,
which encourages the proliferation of
pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium.
That's why we mentioned Clostridium as a
normal issue, sometimes triggered
by an immediate
[inaudible 00:05:43.148] development.
And of course, not last but not least,
mycotoxins, which can damage
the intestine, and immune-suppression.
And with that, the next slide… We must
understand also that the most exposed
dermal surface to the changes in the
environment is the gastrointestinal tract.
So let's say that's the internal external
surface, and the intestine microbiota has
an important role in
animal health and production.
So, alterations in the microbial profile
can influence the development of the
physiology and immunology of
the gastrointestinal tract,
as well as resistance
to enteric infections.
This is done through the interactions with
the intestinal lining
[inaudible 00:06:33.628] A
well-functioning intestinal microbiota is
crucial for the health of our animals,
especially if we expect high production
and performance, which is the case.
So microorganisms can directly interact
with the lining of the
and change the physiology of the tract and
immune status of the bird.
Hold on, if I could stop you right there,
I want to jump on this opportunity
to remind everyone who's listening that
we've got an interactive session today.
So as we proceed through this material,
if you have any questions,
go ahead and use the chat function,
which you'll find in the lower portion
of your screen, in order to submit your
questions, and we'll try to address
as many of those as we can during the
later Q&A session.
It's also interactive in a second way,
which is that we can ask questions to the
audience to get a feel for where you are
on these positions and on these issues.
So, let's go ahead and use this
opportunity to launch our first poll
question to the audience, all right?
It's going to come up right here on your
screen, and this is based on Fernando's
comments just a moment ago.
Which factor plays a critical role on the
development of initial dysbiosis?
So please go ahead and select the one that
you think is most appropriate,
whether you think it's excessive hygiene
at the hatchery, vertical transmission
of pathogens, horizontal transmission at
the barns, all of the above,
or only B and C, vertical
and horizontal transmission.
Go ahead and choose the answer that you
think is most appropriate.
And we've got plenty of answers coming in
right now, we're going to be able to show
those results to you in just a moment,
and check your sense of this with our
resident expert on the topic.
So we have more than half of you have
voted already, I'm going to go ahead and
give you just one more moment here,
and then we will close the poll and look
at those results.
So Fernando, this is where our audience is
on this topic right now.
You can see that more than half of
everyone who participated says "All
of the above, all of these factors are
critical in the development
of initial dysbiosis."
Is that the case?
– That is a curious…a curious test.
Can you go back to the test, please?
So, I'm happy that 32% responded only
B and C, because I feel that most
of the time, I will say 90% are vertical
and horizontal transmission.
About excessive hygiene at the hatchery,
I don't think it's a big issue,
to be honest.
But I'm glad that everybody stayed on the
last two answers, and especially with 30%
for B and C.
But I would prefer everybody to be on the
second answer, that answer.
So, thank you for helping
us out with that.
And please go ahead with your…
So, which opportunities in antibiotic free
production are out there?
This brings us to the question.
Considering the challenges we just
discussed, how do we design
an antibiotic free program?
[inaudible 00:09:49.377] that satisfies
consumer demands for a safe and quality
food supply, as well as the producers
demand for healthy livestock that can
perform at their optimum.
Of course from the consumer side good
quality food is crucial,
and non-antibiotic use at all.
From the producers side,
you want optimum performance
and healthy livestock.
So, this comes…next,
I'd like to move… This comes to the
situation we have now,
natural feed additives have been receiving
increased attention as viable options to
help us obtain this goal from the consumer
side and from the producer side,
and we'll see how.
So, how to decrease the incidence of
microbial pathologies inlay-old chicks and
early production stages?
Let's see which solutions.
So the solution, of course,
is to promote eubiosis.
A healthy microbiota contains a balanced
composition of many classes of bacteria,
both physiological or pathogenic.
And the best is when this favorable
balance of microbes maintains integrity,
inflammation and disease.
Next… So, a big gut stressor in early
stages of production is
or non-specific dysbiosis.
In situations where the gut microbiota
becomes imbalanced, the biological
defenses against pathogenic agents are
less effective, and this imbalance is
known as dysbiosis…is how it is known.
Dysbiosis occurs when the
gut environment is altered.
This can occur through many means,
including the use of antibiotics randomly,
without any sense or any direction.
Changes in the diet,
as we mentioned before, signal infections.
Dysbiosis leads to a reduction in
physiological beneficial bacteria,
and an increase in pathogenic bacteria,
like we see in this design, this drawing.
This results in damage to the epithelial
barrier, increased bacterial adherence
and penetration, and at
the end, inflammation.
And when there's inflammation,
there is no absorption,
there's no protection.
Let's go to the next slide,
please… So when we mention gut health
and integrity, we must remember it's
directly affected by stress.
Especially when we talk about digestive
health, it's the main concern in the
poultry industry as it has a high impact
on production mortality rates caused
by gut diseases.
And traditionally, sub-therapeutic doses
of antibiotics have been used
for just in case.
It's easy, let's call it,
as a strategy to control pathogen load,
prevent diseases, and
enhance growth performance.
But this contrasts with the normal segment
of the beneficial microflora,
which its natural
defense, bacterial enteritis,
is an important disease in poultry.
And recall when we have dysbiosis,
we talk about [inaudible 00:12:49.041]
at the same time.
It causes loss of performance by internal
inflammation and villus shortening,
which affect performance.
So by this, it means bacterial enteritis
is omnipresent, it's up to us to know
exactly which strategy we should put in
practice to control this.
The efficiency of feed digestion and
absorption is also directly proportional
to the healthy surface of the intestine.
And this means that when we have bacterial
enteritis, it's usually an inflammatory
response in the gut induced
by general bacterial challenge,
not one single bacterial species.
It's a cycle, it's a vicious cycle
starting with an oversupply of nutrients
in the lumen, which leads to a shift in
the microbiota that has too many nutrients
which are not absorbed,
and these induce morphological and
which result in poor digestion of feed and
absorption of nutrients,
which leads again to an oversupply
of nutrients in the lumen,
which will feed undesirable bacteria,
and this will keep going on.
Next… So, how do we promote eubiosis?
Go again… To promote eubiosis,
there is no straightforward approach.
Because this question will come later to
Ryan, it's important to recognize which
principles in practice are there.
And it can change from one farm to another
farm, but the sooner we recognize which
predisposing factors there are,
we can prioritize what's
causing disbalance, and
gut integrity loss.
So the point is, we should all the time
enhance all natural defenses birds already
have naturally, but they take time to
build these natural defenses,
we have to help them.
And I hope Luis will help to show you how
to enhance these natural defenses,
because the first and most reliable
mechanism, at the end what we want,
we want to anticipate establishment
of a beneficial microflora,
which is ideal even before they touch the
floor, if we're talking empirically.
So we talked about gut integrity
enhancement as a consequence,
and the mucin layer is the first physical
barrier in the gut for that protection.
And also remember, an optimal supply of
digestible amino acids and minerals
for growth of inner organs, muscles,
skeleton and performance is important
because if you can't feed the animal an
optimal feed, the microbes that are there
[inaudible 00:15:24.166] feeding for good.
So at the end, remember, don't forget,
avoid damage to the gut
epithelium by mycotoxins.
We know that [inaudible 00:15:33.913]
mycotoxins are crucial to be controlled
to avoid damage to the fragile
[inaudible 00:15:40.038] And at the end,
as I mentioned before,
these [inaudible 00:15:44.071] are
the products, in a moment,
that really enhance gut health,
and are gaining ground support to host
defense, gut barrier management
and integrity, and recovery or the
intestine, or to control
microbial ecosystem directly.
So, there are multiple strategies to
successfully modulate the microbiota.
And before I jump out to next questions,
which strategy should I use,
remember there is no fixed strategy.
There are products we know that work as a
primary utilization, however,
each farm might have
a customized strategy.
So probiotics, organic acids,
phytogenics and mycotoxin deactivators,
all combinations are possible,
although we fix our tension on probiotics
because when you want
to prioritize a solution
[inaudible 00:16:41.362] starting point.
And that will be the focus
today on our session, probiotics.
That's the end of my presentation.
I'll be back for questions later on,
and I hope you write in again.
– Thank you, Fernando.
We will certainly be back
to you at the Q&A.
Thank you for those remarks.
And we're going to use this schema right
here as a jumping off point to ask our
audience what their favorite strategies
are when it comes
to gut microbiota modulation.
So, let's launch our second and final
audience poll question right now.
Which strategy do you most commonly use to
avoid initial dysbiosis in day-old chicks?
So if you're already using feed additives
or any particular nutrition interventions
here from the start,
go ahead and choose the answer that best
fits your situation.
The answers you may select from are
medicated feed at placement,
probiotics at the hatchery,
probiotics at placement or in the
early stages, other feed additives,
including some of the ones that Fernando
just mentioned, or none.
And we're going to let everyone go ahead
and choose the answer that best fits
their situations, whether it's your own
operation or its a recommendation that
you give, If you are
in a consulting capacity.
Please go ahead and choose your favorite
strategy, we're going
to share those results.
I see that more than half of our live
audience has already weighed in,
I'm going to give you just one more moment
to choose your response,
and then we're going to share those
results and have a look.
All right, the poll is closed.
Thank you for all who participated.
Let's have a look at what you had to say.
And Luis, I'm going to turn to you this
time, as our resident expert here when it
comes to probiotics.
Probiotic at placement or early stages
came out very favorably,
53% of the audience chose those,
followed by probiotics at the hatchery,
medicated feed at placement at 13%,
other feed additives at 10%,
and no intervention was chosen
by 5% of our listeners.
How do those numbers reflect the best
practice, what we see on the field?
What are your thoughts here?
– Actually, thanks Ryan for the question,
and it isn't in line to what we see
in practice because as a first, normally,
people or producers are using probiotics
at placement, so once we place the birds,
we start to use probiotics.
However, now when it comes to second
answer, in the second place,
that one has proven more often now that
it's good to introduce these beneficial
bacteria at hatching,
so this is part of the topic that we
will…I mean, this is actually the core of
the topic that we will cover right now.
So, should I go ahead and start?
– Yeah, please, go ahead.
– Thank you.
Thank you, Ryan.
So thanks, Fernando,
for helping us to put into perspective
most of the issues that overwhelm our
poultry producers, and how important it is
to have an early intervention in order to
assure day-old chick quality,
which will also have a greater impact when
it comes to later on in the cycle.
So, I will talk today about probiotics.
So here on your screen you
have the world of probiotics.
Probably now, through the dynamics of the
market, some of these categories may
have changed, but kind of remain similar.
So the single-strain probiotics,
currently the most commercial products
are Bacillus-based, however not 100%
effective for gut immunomodulation,
and we will talk about this in a moment.
Then we have the multi-strain probiotics,
multi-species, multi-strength can say more
than one type of bacteria inside,
or same type of bacteria
but different strength.
Then we have the prebiotics.
In the prebiotics, we have different ones.
The most commonly used
are the phosphoric oligosaccharides
or mannan oligosaccharides.
We have single-strain synbiotics,
so where we have the pre- and the
probiotic in one formula,
then we have undefined cultures.
These are products that are commonly used
at hatching, so they are
given at the hatchery.
There is a hidden danger when it comes to
giving these undefined cultures,
which can be the transfer of some
[inaudible 00:21:18.166] that can confer
resistance to other bacteria.
And we can talk about that at another
time, or you can write me and I will be
glad to talk to you regarding this.
Multi-species species probiotics,
so we have these type of probiotics that
have more than one species of bacteria,
and then we have multi-species synbiotics,
where we have very few products in the
market, and among them,
we have PoultryStar.
So here, I forgot to tell you that you had
the definition of what are probiotics,
in case you're not familiar.
But basically, they are bacteria that
confer a benefits to the host.
In this case, we're talking in the human
world where we eat our probiotics
every day, maybe in a yogurt or some aged
cheese or some preserved food,
that can be as well.
So in the wild, the chicken will normally
receive a complete gut flora
from the environment, its mother's feces,
I'm sorry I forgot a comma,
and will consequently be
protected against infections.
So we have this cycle here where we have
the newly-born chick,
so we have two scenarios.
In the wild they will be in contact with
the environment, with the mother hen,
so this will confer or it will transfer
part of the microbiota,
and then will proliferate and maturate,
and confers this protection.
Now in domesticated fowl,
or…which is the case of modern
poultry systems, there is no more of that
contact, direct contact
with the mother hen.
And this comes to the first polling
question that you did, Ryan,
where I'm glad some of the people also
replied saying that excessive hygiene can
also be detrimental to the day-old chick
microbiota, because there is no contact,
there is no transfer of this bacteria,
there may be some vertical transmission
of pathogens or opportunistic bacteria
that can proliferate during hatching.
So it is essential to use some kind of
probiotic, and we will talk about which
type of probiotic can answer,
can help us to maturate,
or support the maturation of the immune
system when it comes to transferring
protection to the day- old chicks.
So, how do we choose a probiotic to seed
the gut and prime immune
cells at hatching?
So that's the main question, basically.
Not all probiotics have the
same role in the gut.
And I will give you this from a scientific
perspective, not from us, Biomin,
but what actually scientists have
summarized in this beautiful
paper from FAO.
This is from 2016.
So, it's a long paper,
I can give you the link later
on or the PDF.
Like I said, you can contact Biomin,
and then I will be glad to transfer this
knowledge to you.
Or you can go and Google it.
Then we have four major categories.
I will not talk about the first two
because that's more related to the
bacteria itself, but now I will talk about
the category three, which is a
multi-species or multi-strain probiotic,
that's the category,
or single-strain probiotics.
So, they tried to compare these two.
And in the fourth category,
we compare what we call…so maybe this is a
new work for you, but
it's called allochthonous probiotics
versus autochthonous probiotics.
So as you can see here down,
it says the microorganisms used
as probiotics, which are normally not
present in the GI tract,
the intestinal tract of animals,
are referred to allochthonous.
This may be like an example,
yeast or bacillus, so you can
see this here.
What is the main
objective of this bacteria?
To increase in digestion
and absorption of nutrients.
Because they have a proteolytic…normally,
this type of bacillus bacteria has a
so they enhance this part,
this function of the gut.
Now, when we want to
talk about autochthonous bacteria,
these are microorganisms that are normally
present as indigenous inhabitants
of the GI tract.
These are referred to as autochthonous
probiotics, these can be Lactobacillus
or Bifidobacterium, given as an example.
So, these are the ones that, in the paper,
cause colonization resistance,
which means they are the ones that
competitively exclude pathogenic or
opportunistic bacteria from the attaching
to the [inaudible 00:25:48.381] layers.
And also, these are the ones
that are in direct contact…well,
direct contact with the immune cells,
and bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium,
has been linked to homeostasis,
which is a stop in the gut.
So if we have this type of bacteria in the
gut, or in the relative abundance
of the microbiome, we know that we have
reached a point of maturation in the gut
where we don't have a response of immune
responses…and I'm sorry
for the redundance, and then we are
stopping the bird from expending this
energy in the immune responses,
and having this energy back
into it's growth.
So then, what is the ideal probiotic?
Number one, it has not to be pathogenic to
the host, so it confers some benefits,
be of the host origin.
Here we have the two types of literature,
where one says that being of the host
origin is good, some other ones,
they say it's not.
But I side with the one that is good,
because by experience we have in the case
that we will be talking today,
we have a host-specific probiotic,
and we have seen
multiple benefits from it.
Normally, every time it is challenged we
see a benefit, so I will side
with this part.
Of course, these bacteria resist digestive
acid juice and bile because they have
to bypass the most acidic part of the
stomach, then persist in the intestine.
That's essential so it can proliferate and
also colonize the gut,
attach to the intestinal epithelium to
create that competitive exclusion,
production of inhibitory substances to the
pathogenic bacterial growth.
So we're talking about the release of
bacteriocins every time they
feel a threat.
And once this bacteriocin is released,
then we have the counterpart of the gut,
which is the [inaudible 00:27:44.686] So
we have this constant communication
between the microbiota and the host in
order to naturally neutralize this type
of pathogenic bacteria
or opportunistic one.
So in immunomodulation and
modification of bacterial activities
within the intestines,
so we know that we also have some other
metabolites being produced,
like short-chain fatty acids and so on,
that can help us to
modify these bacterial activities.
So, what probiotic solution can Biomin
present to poultry producers?
So if you can see in the back…I'm not so
sure that you can see it,
but we have PoultryStar.
So PoultryStar, these are synbiotic,
so we have the prebiotic inside.
That was one of the
questions I saw before.
But we have the two,
so we have the
which is synergistically acting
with our probiotic strains.
So here you can see what
is the aim of PoultryStar.
I will not read it for the sake of time
because I'm going to also talk about this,
but we are extremely proud of this product
because in 2016 we received this
innovation of work, because it's a product
that is…it has been thoroughly researched,
so we have results in different fields.
The product itself also has a complexity
where we have different bacteria that is
interacting together and creating
a synergistic environment,
we have the fructooligosaccharide that
gives its benefits to this bacteria and
to other bacterias in the gut,
especially this [inaudible 00:29:17.793]
that we will talk a little bit later.
And we also have this organic product,
we have organic seal for organic use.
But today we will be talking about the
synbiotic PoultryStar Hatchery.
It was designed to be applied in
hatchlings, its application boosts
maturation of the immune system,
it stimulates early feeding behavior,
which is very good in young birds,
and seeds the gut with beneficial bacteria
for a strong start.
So, this is the aim that
I was telling you already.
So, PoultryStar Hatchery stimulates every
feeding behavior, and seeds the gut
with specific bacteria for a strong start.
This is a key message.
And what are the challenges,
or…that was another question that I saw,
what are we trying to tackle when we give
these type of probiotics in the hatchery?
So the challenges that we have seen,
or what our producers, the feedback,
and also the research that we have been
doing is we look to increase or to improve
the body weight that first week,
and this effect carries on.
We also gives vaccine support,
so we can combine PoultryStar Hatchery
with [inaudible 00:30:27.642] and we will
see part of these in vitro analyses.
We also have papers that you can see
that…on the internet,
where you can see that PoultryStar has
been combining with different vaccines
in the hatchery.
We also have hydration.
So sometimes these birds are dehydrated,
so when you give PoultryStar Hatchery,
you can give some kind of hydration
because this is a soft gel that has been
diluted in water.
So you give this part,
and then we have the first week dysbiosis,
this challenge is…we see it very often in
the commercial applications.
And one of the things that we have seen a
lot with PoultryStar Hatcheries is that it
has improved greatly when it comes to the
bacterial communities, that placement,
and especially the Bifidobacterium.
So we have managed to get established
Bifidobacterium by giving
then we have initial mortality,
we have also that part
that we can improve.
So just to give you some examples so you
can measure, we have as body weight
an average from 10 to 15 grams of
improvement, mortality anywhere from 0.30%
to 0.60% of a flock,
so that's quite substantial.
And we also have
seen the increasing uniformity.
And when I talk about uniformity,
especially in these non-segregated poultry
productions where we don't have the
females and the male separated and we have
them combined, we have seen the uniformity
of the female birds, that has increased.
Of course, not only with PoultryStar
Hatchery, this is the like I said just
at the beginning, but then we also have
some subsequent applications
of PoultryStar sol…or PoultryStar me in
the feed, or sol in the water.
So, what are the features of this product?
Across the land of PoultryStar,
we can see here that we have full support
of immune system development,
capacity of colonization,
and I would like to graphically talk to
you about all of these but I don't
have the time.
However, like I said,
you can just write me,
we can have a video conference and so on,
and we can talk about all these,
if you have any doubt.
Defined bacteria, host-specific,
and we have seen that it is a synbiotic.
So all these that I was talking to you
before, but what are the features
of PoultryStar Hatchery only?
So, this hatchery is
a water soluble version.
It means that it's a powder,
so you will get a powder and then you will
dissolve it in the water.
This is an innovative application because
not only is this a dry powder,
it's not something that you receive like a
soft gel, you have to make it yourself,
but it's an all-in-one product,
which means that you have the carrier and
you have the active compounds together so
you don't have to dilute and separate,
like product A, product B,
and then put it in the water.
No, you just have to measure the amount of
grams per…in order…you have to measure the
amount of grams correlated to the amount
of birds that you want to apply,
and then you just dissolve it
and you can apply it.
And how do you apply it?
Well, we have our Biomin exclusive
applicator as well, so if you don't
have it, we can
facilitate you the applicator.
I mean, we have different ones,
we have onsite devices of the hatchery,
portable devices, so it's very
flexible in this regard.
And what have we seen
then in the application?
So, these are in the scientific settings,
here is not commercial application.
However, later I will give you an example
of a commercial application.
Unfortunately, here we don't have day
seven, which is the first week,
but we have day fourteen
in the first trial.
So you can see in orange is body weight,
kilograms, so we can see a slight
difference between the control and
PoultryStar here in the first trial,
it was two grams difference.
However, we can see a huge reduction in
mortality, from 2.31 to 1.39.
We have also the feed intake that is
increased by two grams.
And then when we go to the second trial…
So this is a set of trials that
we are doing.
This is the first one,
here we have the summary of the
second one, we have until day 11.
So control and PoultryStar,
you can see here that we have a great
improvement of more than 10 grams in terms
of body weight, then here we have feed
intake also improved,
and on day 21 we have also improved
body weight…sorry, and we also
have a decrease in mortality.
Now, something that we don't have here,
and this is what I would like to show you
because it was one of the questions,
the improvement in microbiota.
So now in the third trial,
we will do the analyses of the microbiota
at day seven.
Because we have for these ones,
but it's until the end of the cycle,
so many things could have happened during
the rearing of the birds that can modify
the microbiota, but we want to see what
happens with the application
of PoultryStar Hatchery only.
So we have done it already with
PoultryStar sol concentrated
given at the hatchery,
which is the other product that we can use
at the hatchery if you already have an
applicator, or you want to use it
in the spray water.
And we have seen a modification,
especially by day three,
of [inaudible 00:36:06.464]
which is critical for the maturation
of the microbiome.
So, these are the positive
results that we have seen.
And this is a program in the commercial
setting, so we have 50,000 birds
of the applications.
Now, the control group had the I.B.
vaccination and the antibiotic
application, so which antibiotic they want
to treat with, Methoxasol,
so this was medicated at the
beginning of placement.
With PoultryStar, there
was no vaccination.
And I want to emphasize this is not
something that we are promoting,
this was just the customer asking not to
have the birds vaccinated in order
to compare nothing at hatchery versus just
PoultryStar and the standard application.
And you can see that in terms of weight,
it was quite similar.
In FCR we have a slight improvement,
however in mortality,
we can see a great reduction.
And what was the feedback?
That the trial on both halls were running
very well, without any health problems and
need for extra treatment of antibiotics.
So only vitamins were given,
which is something that was a regular
practice that they had.
In terms of efficiency,
we can also see an improvement by using
the PoultryStar Hatchery program,
which is PoultryStar Hatchery
at the hatchery, and PoultryStar sol at
the farm, day one through three.
Now here in this, one of my last slides,
I want to show you the combination
of PoultryStar Hatchery with the vaccine
in the same solution.
And why I want to show you this is because
many customers were asking whether or not
we can assure the stability of the
oocysts, or the mix of the oocysts
in different layers of this gel,
because as you know,
when you have the cocci vaccines applied
at the hatchery, you have this constant
stirring in order to have this even
distribution of oocysts.
So here you can see the vaccine alone is
here, the target is around 6,000 oocysts.
However, when you mix it with
PoultryStart, you can see here you have
the top layer, the middle layer and the
bottom layer in that solution
that we prepared.
We measured along 24 hours,
and you can see that the composition is
quite evenly distributed.
Here we have an issue,
but I think it was more when we did the
analytics instead of the actual results,
because you can see here there is the
oocysts tend not to reproduce in the
solution, but here you can see that it is
evenly distributed across.
So with this, what do the experts say?
So unfortunately, the situation that we
have had right now with the pandemic,
we haven't had so many onsite or
[inaudible 00:38:57.573] conferences,
but this I took it from Gdansk 2019.
So we have Dr. Marc-André Selosse that was
talking about the interactions between the
hosts and their associated microbial
communities may affect their behavior
leading to a decrease in performance,
so we have to keep this in mind.
There is a permanent crosstalk between
host and synbiotic microbiomes which
affects some functions of the gut,
such as nutrient absorption.
That was said by Dr. Fanny Calenge.
And then one of my favorite speakers,
Dr. Mike Kogut was talking about the
intestinal microbiome modulates cellular
differentiation in the immune system
to control defense against pathogens and
tolerance, which is key,
especially in day-old chick birds.
So we need to create first tolerance to
many things that they get into contact
in the immune system,
and then we have to create these immune
defenses against pathogens.
So as a summary, in conclusion,
and Fernando, feel free to jump in,
switching to an antibiotic free program,
as he was talking, is going to require a
shift in the paradigm.
Must find means to support and maintain
gut health to ensure overall flock health.
Natural feed additives can play a role in
beneficially altering gut microbiota,
and improve intestinal integrity,
physiology, and immunology.
And some of the favorites from Fernando
and me, numerous changes to feeding,
management, and health programs will have
to be made in order to succeed.
So it's not only to give the probiotics,
but we also have to work in the background
a little bit with the biosecurity and
other management in order
to assure success.
Focus needs to be throughout the whole
production chain, from hen breeder
to broiler birds, because even though you
give this probiotic at hatchery,
but if you have a vertical transmission of
a pathogen, it will be very difficult
to get rid of it.
We can make sure that the birds that are
not infected will not have these bugs
but the ones that are vertically
or they are contaminated,
we call them "hot chicks…" And I took this
word from Professor Wideman,
then these birds will
likely be beneficially affected.
Then, the right probiotics containing
essential microbes should be part of any
antibiotic reduction strategy,
or as a support in conventional farming.
So, we have also numerous experiments or
trials where we have seen some kind
of synergies when you give the probiotic
before medicated feed,
and then after medicated feed to
reestablish all the
good bacteria population.
So feel free to also contact me,
and I'll be happy to tell you how
is this experience.
So with this, Ryan, I'm
open to questions and answers.
– Thank you, Luis, for those remarks.
And I am certain that you will be
contacted, the board is lighting up here,
we have a lot of questions coming through.
So let's move into our Q&A session,
and let me just say thank you for all
of your strong interest here.
If your question does not get addressed in
this session, in the next 10 to 15 minutes
that we have, your Biomin representative
will follow up and be in touch with you.
So, it's always a good opportunity for a
deeper discussion on these topics,
and how Biomin can be
of assistance to you.
So, let's get started with Fernando.
I have one or two for you,
just to bring us back up to the…let's see,
initial jumping off point of this
discussion, is "What, if any,
negative impacts are there from the
removal of antibiotics or AGPs
from a production system?
What sort of things would you tend to
expect, as a producer who's making a shift
to an antibiotic free feeding solution?"
– Thanks, Ryan, for the question.
As I mentioned, one of the biggest
important rules is to recognize why we
were using AGPs, and why we were using
antibiotics in general.
So by cutting AGPs, it means we have a
lack of control on these
mainly [inaudible 00:43:17.215] and so
with that, we have solutions which are
working, actually, with even more success,
although old strategic plans and
combinations should be customized,
depending on each farm.
I've found several different situations in
different parts of the world,
so this is the important point to
emphasize we should recognize.
But anyhow, several countries which are no
longer using AGPs, they are succeeding
even better because they realized what's
going on, and they found out the
right combination, the right solution.
– Okay, and that's one of those services
that you're providing out in the field,
right, is a custom service to recommend
the best approach?
– Exactly, both of us.
From the science and research to the
field, that's our goal,
to discuss together,
interactively and with a positive sense.
Always thinking positive helps a lot to
find out why is this happening,
what are the main challenges,
and mainly that we find the solutions,
and it's working.
That's great to hear.
Another one for you, Fernando,
because you emphasized the importance
of day-old chick quality.
What can chick quality
then influence, right?
Do you see an impact,
do you expect it to influence egg
production or weight gain later on?
What's the emphasis…what's the reason for
this emphasis, let's say?
– That's a long story, as I mentioned.
I could talk about that
for one hour…on another forum.
Anyhow, it's important in these days to
understand the vertical transmission.
I mean, most of the things that happen are
longer concepts starting from breeder
to broiler, and in the
middle have the hatchery.
But anyhow, the most important step is
that the immune system will build their
own microbiota, that takes a long time.
And it might take a dead microbiota.
So [inaudible 00:45:25.211] like we've
said, when you use
it almost drives the immune system
the right way.
So apart from any vertical transmission,
I would say it's crucial that the first
contact of this day-old chick,
to be healthier, is with good bacteria.
There is no time, because it's such an
intensive system, it's crucial that the
bird has contact, immediate contact with
the [inaudible 00:45:52.384] microbiota it
will get later on.
So with this, you are
driving the immune system forthrightly.
– And Ryan, may I add some points?
To the vertical transmission point,
if we want to get most of these birds
in order to improve the day-old chick
quality, and we see that even though we
apply the probiotics,
we don't see so much of a result,
we have to go up, as Fernando was saying,
and as I was stressing at the end,
we have to go up in the chain and treat
the parent stock,
the great-grandparent stock.
We are actually working with these genetic
companies, with the big ones,
and sometimes we use them,
sometimes we don't.
But this not only relies on them,
also it relies on the ones
who reproduce afterwards.
So it will be good to go up in the chain
and treat these birds in order
to have healthier chicks.
Just one more single word,
regarding what you said, Luis,
it's easy to simply understand that the
load of pathogens in the breeder sometimes
is not a threat for the breeder itself
because it's already mature,
but it might be a huge threat for the
fragile, young chick.
So sometimes, just by reducing the load of
pathogens, it could be with probiotic
[inaudible 00:47:05.958] combination,
they have different strategies that are
taken in the world
[inaudible 00:47:10.580] On top of that,
we'll help the young chick,
as we already mentioned.
So I have to jump in right there because
you mentioned it, Fernando.
We have a specific question,
"Can you use a product like PoultryStar,
PoultryStar sol, and Biotronic Top Line at
the same time in a breeder flock?"
– Yes, it is possible,
and it's even additional
[inaudible 00:47:34.733] even use a pure
acid on top of a probiotic.
So, it would just be
a mixed apart beforehand.
And once the acid is diluted in water,
then you can apply the probiotic.
You don't need to use a probiotic,
for example [inaudible 00:47:51.983] for a
full day, you can use it almost like a
vaccine, for two hours,
three hours, four hours.
But never join, never combine the
[inaudible 00:48:01.157] products together
because it's too strong.
– But never combine them
as stock solution.
Yes, I agree with that.
And important [crosstalk 00:48:09.335] the
probiotics, they like acidic media.
So it's beneficial.
And this is a concrete example of one of
those tailored solutions offered
by Biomin, PoultryStar and Biotronic both
being Biomin products, of course.
Just for people who are not familiar with
those, why would you tend to use
that particular combination?
What sort of objectives would you have
when you use the organic acids,
and the synbiotic?
– To Fernando, to me…?
– Who would like to…?
– Actually, what we see as being
representative of the gut performance
competence center, I can tell you that
when we have this combination of the
organic acids and the probiotics,
we see a lot of synergy among them,
and it's especially to focus on challenges
that are driven by Gram-negative bacteria.
So we're talking about ecoli,
or we're talking about salmonella,
and there we have a great impact when we
use the two of them.
So that was another question,
I think that you had,
about salmonella can be in
broilers or in breeders.
So, one of the solutions that we promote a
lot is a combination
of PoultryStar and Biotronic.
Of course as an assurance,
we also put…we would like to recommend the
use of [inaudible 00:49:29.953] but if not
possible for economical reasons
or whatever, we strongly recommend these
two, PoultryStar and Biotronic.
Then, we also have other combinations with
our phytogenic clients,
but this is for
different type of solutions.
– In a general [crosstalk 00:49:48.426]
– Actually, in [inaudible 00:49:51.996] is
where AGPs were massively
used in antibiotics.
People moved to this solution,
but the goal was to use probiotics at the
beginning to build up an efficient
microflora, and then when it was
use the [inaudible 00:50:05.906] to keep
the load of pathogens really lower to
avoid any attempt.
So, this is the combination,
first establish beneficial microflora,
and then keep the pathogens
at the low level.
We need pathogens to stimulate the immune
system, but not that much.
[inaudible 00:50:24.261] function.
Let me talk about
immune system stimulation, then.
We've had several questions about that
point as well.
What's the most successful
modulator of microbiota?
So out of the strategies that you two have
described, Luis, out of the different
types of probiotics that you've explained,
probiotics, single-strain, synbiotic,
prebiotic, all of these different terms,
what is going to be the most effective and
have the greatest impact?
– Well, in this case
[inaudible 00:50:55.448] the specific
bacteria as they ones we have in
PoultryStar, we have had in vitro trials,
and we have had in gut cell lines and also
in vivo trials, we have researched more
than 480 strains, we own
a lot of these strains.
And the reason why we have these ones in
PoultryStar is because throughout the
research of eight years,
we realized that these are the ones that
actually drive gut populations in
different sections of the gut.
So, that's the reason why we have this
type of Enterococcus faecium,
this type of Lactobacillus,
and this type of Bifidobacterium,
especially [inaudible 00:51:29.401]
Bifidobacterium, you don't easily find
in a probiotic Bifidobacterium,
like for example the one we have
[inaudible 00:51:36.318] because they are
not that stable to produce,
the yield is very low,
and so on and so forth.
The producer of this probiotic is not
economically sustainable sometimes.
For us, we are…our objective is to help
our culture producers so we can invest and
sacrifice a little bit of the profit on
that regard, and do the research,
and make sure that this type of bacteria
have this permanent interaction
with immune cells, especially like I said,
this Bifidobacterium that drive much
of the bacterial communities and the site
where the [inaudible 00:52:09.374] are.
So I would say this type of bacteria is
the one that will help you,
and that is essential for the gut to have
the right development.
I'm not saying the other ones are bad.
I'm not saying that.
They are good, but they have different
mode of actions as well.
– Absolutely, loud and clear.
Luis, in your comments you've already
mentioned twice the economic concerns
of cost of production.
In the poultry industry, obviously,
that's something that's very important.
What can we say when it comes to
probiotics, what is the return
on investment of these types of solutions?
– As we were talking about PoultryStar
Hatchery today and what we have seen
in the market right now, as it is,
the single application of PoultryStar
Hatchery by the first day of age is giving
you a return of investment of 4.8 to 1.
So it's above the rule that it has to be
at least four, so at least
we're close there.
And it brings you a great benefit.
Not only that, but also later on because
the effect [inaudible 00:53:10.269] unless
there is a very stressful challenge in the
barn, it's carried throughout the cycle.
But we always stress to use or to
complement with application of the me
product in the feed,
or the soluble product in the water
in order to achieve better results.
So yeah, that's what I can tell you in
terms of PoultryStar Hatchery.
– [inaudible 00:53:32.337] experience
in the field?
– Yeah, anyhow, the target
is always gut health,
and [inaudible 00:53:41.334] colonization.
So I'll say that for this purpose,
where you want a good gut colonization,
pre- or probiotics which are
host-specific… So basically,
you are anticipating,
as we repeat a lot of times,
we are anticipating what
should happen naturally.
Rather than that, you're not really
colonizing the tract.
– Yeah, and remember it takes up to 21
days to have a maturation
in the microbiota.
Or [crosstalk 00:54:09.008] of the
microbiota, at least by the midsection
of the gut.
So the birds, some birds in Asia have 28
days before they go to slaughter,
and so the time is very narrow in order to
have this maturation and standardization
of the microbiome.
– [crosstalk 00:54:25.677] yeah, go ahead.
– We have a very relevant question along
those lines, Luis.
– So if it's on average 21 days,
how much can PoultryStar accelerate the
colonization of beneficial bacteria
in the gut?
Are you able to quantify the number of
days it takes for the strains applied
with PoultryStar at day one,
how long for them to colonize?
– It is actually almost immediately.
We have had these…we haven't done it with
PoultryStar Hatchery because that's the
next step that we're doing in the third
trial, but we tried already
with PoultryStar sol application
at the hatchery.
We have measured after one day and after
three days, the relative abundance
of Bifidobacterium, and we have seen that
if you don't use this probiotic,
you cannot recover Bifidobacterium
in the gut.
And we have done it in sections of the
gut, and not just in the drop-ins.
So you can see that the bacteria are
actually colonizing, and through the days,
they are actually proliferating,
so the amount of bacteria increases.
So, but these…we can keep some small
numbers of Bifidobacteria communities,
but we need a constant stimulus,
or use of PoultryStar me or sol,
as I was saying, in order to keep these
bacteria on target, because it's
very sensitive, so any changes in the
environment or any stress can actually
kill this type of bacteria?
– And remember [inaudible 00:55:56.252] so
for the first two or three
very fast and the intestine is growing,
so more [inaudible 00:56:03.065] are
gaining ground, so you need
to recolonize it.
That's why he's explaining that.
So start early, and start often, right?
– [inaudible 00:56:16.155] and continuous
colonization until it's established.
– So we've also had a couple of questions
here, and this is going to be another
one for Luis.
You've mentioned different
forms of PoultryStar.
This regards application, right?
So, what is the…is there a best method to
get the most effect out of this
type of product?
Is it through the feed,
is it drinking water,
can you apply this if you're doing
extrusion, pelleting, that sort of thing?
– So, you see me smiling because I will
tell you what happens in the market.
Different groups side
with different products.
Fernando is a vet, and he will not let me
[inaudible 00:56:53.642] most of the vets,
they like PoultryStar sol.
PoultryStar sol is a highly concentrated
product that is used
in [inaudible 00:57:00.513] And this one
gives you the flexibility that it can be
used when you see the onset of early
dysbiosis, as he was talking before,
so this is a soluble version.
Then, you also have the microencapsulated
version, PoultryStar me,
that's the one that,
as you were mentioning,
is using the feed and
also can be pelletized.
So these microcapsule confers that
protection to the bacteria in order
to help the bacteria to
go through this pelletization process.
And we have the concentrated versions of
both of them that you can actually use
in pre-mixes, in the case of PoultryStar
me, or in hatchery applications if you
already have hatchery equipment,
and you have PoultryStar Hatchery as well,
in addition of the organic line.
So yeah, you can use this in different
stages, and it depends on the
recommendation that people like Fernando
gives you in order to use it effectively
in commercial applications.
So, very appreciative for that
overview on that response.
We've got time for just one final one
before we're going to wrap up our session,
and so I wanted to talk about how do you
judge…we talked about ROIs,
or the return on investment
of this type of product.
But what parameters should people be
looking at in terms of evaluating whether
a product is effective or not?
So in the case of PoultryStar,
how do we know that it's working?
What levers does that push,
what results do we typically tend to see?
And this question is raised because some
people tend to be skeptical with certain
products such as probiotics when they'll
see an inconsistent benefit
in their operation.
So that's a little bit of the background
of the question, but the main question
there is what are the parameters to
evaluate the efficacy of a probiotic,
or a synbiotic?
– For which one of us?
– Fernando, you can go ahead.
You have the
experience [inaudible 00:58:56.121]
– I would say when I watch the flock,
any flock, uniformity.
Because uniformity means gut
health is uniform across.
So thus far, I see that the flock is
growing homogeneously it means gut health
is in good condition.
When I check [inaudible 00:59:18.886] the
two conditions get better because
it's drier, there's less
pathogens affecting digestibility,
and most of times what we find,
I would say clinically, is just wet feces.
It's not an infection.
Most of the times when people watch
diarrhea, they think, well,
I've got to use an antibiotic,
they are sick.
Maybe they're not sick,
it's digestion that is already challenged.
Not because of feed…it could be,
but not most of the time because the feed
is not good, it's because there's too much
colonization with the wrong bacteria and
that affects the digestion and
inflammation and so on.
So I would say the most easiest factor to
watch is uniformity.
And of course, indirectly, LCRs,
growth will be influenced positively.
It doesn't mean probiotics are performance
or a growth performer,
but they will do it once they've establish
a beneficial microflora,
and [inaudible 01:00:19.549]
– Just to compliment him,
I agree 100% to what you said Fernando,
because uniformity of the flock is a must.
Sometimes, especially in these combined
systems, and I was talking before we have
now the experience, a lot of experience in
Asia regarding the uniformity
of the flocks, especially
with the females.
Another thing can
be [inaudible 01:00:38.412]
of the slaughtering,
so there will be less because there will
be less [inaudible 01:00:44.412] because
of excessive ammonia.
I'm not saying that's the direct effect of
PoultryStar, but it's an indirect effect
of having a good microbiota.
Then we also have what it is in markets
out of Europe, where they want to export
to here, less [inaudible 01:01:03.905]
because of salmonella contamination,
and in Europe because of Campylobacteria.
And so there we can
see benefits from the product.
– At the end, there
is less bacteria translocation.
This is the thing.
When deformity becomes cause of death
[inaudible 01:01:21.262] to affect the
gut fragile epithelium.
I want to thank you both for that.
Thank you for your insights today,
this has been a riveting discussion.
Still a lot of interest,
a lot of questions coming in.
As I said, our Biomin reps are on hand in
order to reach out to you if we didn't get
to your question today.
But Fernando Luis, let me thank both of
you for your time and input
in today's session.
– Thank you.
– It was great having you.
– Thank you, group.
– I want to thank our audience as well.
You could do us a favor by please
providing your feedback as soon
as the session ends.
There's a short minute-survey,
it takes a minute or two to give us your
input on what you think we could do to
improve the session,
suggest future topics for additional
sessions, and you can also contact your
Biomin representative if you'd like to
discuss this or any other topic related
to your operation in the future.
On behalf of Biomin,
I want to thank you all for joining.
Stay safe, and we will speak to you again
soon at the next Antibiotic
Reduction Expert series.
– See you.