Hello and welcome to the final lecture of
the first week of Great experiments in psychology
In the first weeks lecture we discussed about
the history and genesis of psychology and
we spoke about the philosophers we spoke about
the physiologists who had a role in developing
psychology and we spoke about Wilhelm Wundt
and his contributions to developing psychology
as a new discipline
Today we will talk beyond Wundt so and here
we speak about the other developments that
were being taken forth in the different parts
of the world and here primarily we are going
to speak about uhh Titchener that is Edward
Bradford Titchener he was Wundts student and
he propagated psychology in America He was
an English man he moved to England and later
on to America and of course we see the rule
of two other very famous individuals mainly
Charles town and Galton
So to start with our lecture first I will
introduce to an idea uhhh its actually an
experiment that was being conducted in Cornel
university in the twentieth century in the
earlier twentieth century and this actually
was about a swallowing a rubber tube so the
students were asked to volunteer to swallow
a rubber tube that would go down the stomach
and then have hot water poured down the tube
and again ice cold water poured down the tube
and all this was conducted for psychological
So can you imagine any such experiments being
conducted at that time even now as a part
of psychological research yes it was being
done and this was being done by the under
the guidance of Edward Bradford Titwchener
in the early twentieth century and what he
was trying to do was understand the processes
uhhh understand the subjective experiences
at an individual was going through when such
an experiment was taken place
So uhhh strangely there were a lot of students
who had volunteered to be a part of this experiment
imagine somebody swallowing a tube so there
were several students who reported and it
has been doctrinated that there were several
students who reported that they were having
problems and very soon very often they would
vomit out the tube but again they were swallowing
the tube and trying to conduct experiments
so they would have to write down their perceptions
or their understanding their immediate experience
when water was being poured through the tube
Similarly other experiments were also being
conducted like when an individual is going
to the lavatory what were the experience is
that he had he was undergoing and all these
were done by in a psychology lab were led
by professor Titchener and he was trying to
understand the form of introspection So Titchener
professed Titchener as we have already spoken
about several time was a student of Wundt
and he trying to take Wundts psychology to
America but by the time he had started practising
psychology and his experimentation in America
he developed as his own science and though
he spoke about it as Wundian psychology and
he spoke about it as structuralism it was
very different from what Wundt had initially
proposed And he offered this uhhh he called
this psychology as I mentioned structuralism
and it attained a prominence in the United
States and lasted for around two decades before
it was overtaken by some other overthrown
by some other dominant school of psychology
So Wundt had recognised that the how did Wundt
and Tichener differ so Wundt had recognised
the elements or contents of consciousness
but his overriding concern was their organisation
And that is where he spoke about the synthesis
into higher level cognitive functions and
here that is where he spoke about apperception
or accumulating it or synthesising it as a
whole Titchener on the other hand focused
on the mental elements or contents and their
mechanical linking through the process of
association so he was not an associationist
so where he tried to link the elements in
a process so in a mental process and he discarded
Wundts theory of apperception his doctrine
of apperception And Titchener primarily concentrated
on the elements themselves specifically and
then Titcheners views psychologys fundamental
task was to discover the nature of the elementary
conscious experiences to analyse consciousness
and its component parts and thus determine
its structure
So how is so he was focussing on the conscious
experience or say and what were the and to
analyse that consciousness he used the proposition
of introspection and to divided it to break
it into sub parts or sub components and determine
its structure that was his goal So Titchener
to understand about Titchener Titchener was
an English man who was interested he was from
oxford and he became interested in Wundian
psychology but that was not at that point
in time as we discussed earlier England was
not welcomed to be idea of psychology and
so he had to move to Germany where these new
sciences and these different ideas were being
encouraged so he travelled to Leipzig to study
under Wundt himself Titchener earned his doctorate
degree in 1892 and he had very close associations
with Wundt and his family and in fact he had
also travelled on a vacation with Wundt and
his family
After completing his doctorate Titchener returned
to England and to promote experimental psychology
but it was not well received so he again took
up a position in Cornel university in US to
teach psychology and direct the laboratory
over there He was just 25 years of age and
he remained at Cornel for the rest of his
life he developed brain tumour and died at
the age of 60 and till date his brain has
been preserved in a glass jar on display at
Cornel It is a part of a collection in which
began in 1889 and to study differences in
brain characteristics in fact in one of APS
conventions uhh Titcheners brain was brought
as a guest in one of the yes in one of the
experimental psychology conventions
So uhh Titchener spoke of consciousness experience
and he said that the subject matter of psychology
is conscious experience as that experience
is dependent upon the person who is actually
experiencing it This kind of experience he
said it differs from the other sciences so
uhhh say if a physicist is trying to establish
the any fact then he will he will not require
to be present in that group say for example
if you trying to determine the temperature
of a room an individual is not required but
in any psychological to understand any psychological
phenomenon the human being has to be present
in that condition
So physicists he said could examine the phenomenon
from the stand point of physical processes
where psychologists had to consider the physical
process in terms of the human observation
and experience how human how individual how
human being were trying to experience that
phenomenon so obviously you would need an
experience in person whereas the other sciences
like physics and chemistry were did not require
another individual to be present or the human
being to be present when you were making observations
So uhhh he again to repeat he gave the example
of a temperature in physics and he said said
if temperature in the room may be measured
at 85 degrees Fahrenheit whether or not anyone
is in the room to experience it but when observers
are present in the room and report that they
feel uncomfortably warm however that feeling
or that experience that experience of warm
is dependent on the experiencing individuals
that is the people in the room To Titchener
this type of consciousness experience was
the only proper focus of psychological research
So when we are talking of consciousness experience
we are actually talking about the experience
that the individual is going through at that
point in time so imagine people talking about
all these in the early twentieth century So
we actually see how advance the thinking processes
had gone
So they had the people who were already talking
of understanding doing experiments with human
beings people who were already talking of
conscious experience and what is important
to understand human beings so it is it is
amazing to see how psychology had establish
its started establishing itself as a scientific
So uhhh in so in studying conscience experience
Titchener warned against committing the stimulus
error Now what is this stimulus error it is
confusing the mental processes under study
with the stimulus or object being observed
So here he spoke about the mediate and the
immediate experience
So for example when you see an apple when
an observer an apple and then describe that
object as an apple instead of reporting the
elements of colour brightness and shape they
are experiencing they commit the stimulus
error So here you see we are actually talking
like of Wundts uhhh experiencing the redness
of the rose so it is quite similar but there
are some differences between Wundian and Titchener
psychology The object of our observation is
not to be described in everyday language but
rather in terms of elementary consciousness
content of the experience So here he speaks
like uhhh as Wundt had already spoken of is
mediate immediate experience and when he says
that when observers focus on the stimulus
object instead of the conscious content they
fail to distinguish what they have learned
in the past from the object that they are
currently seeing
So it as I was mentioning in the previous
class they an individual who is looking at
an apple and saying I was mentioning about
the rose but here also as an apple if an individual
says that this is a red apple or this is a
big apple so the moment you see it s a big
apple there are some ideas that you already
have about your this size of an apple so and
that by that previous experience you are trying
to estimate the current size So that is not
an immediate experience immediate conscious
experience So what they hear Titchener says
that observers if they say about the size
and shape and colour and brightness of the
object then all the observers can really know
about is you know they must be knowing about
the past they have some past information that
is guiding their current experience that when
they describe anything other than the brightness
colour and special characteristics they are
actually interpreting the objects not observing
it and that is when an individual is suppose
to commit this stimulus error
So again to go back what is this stimulus
error it is confusing the mental processes
and their study with the stimulus or the object
that is being observed so thus if the person
is committing the stimulus error he would
be dealing with mediate and not immediate
experience Now that brings us to another idea
that Titchener propagated or the idea of introspection
So Wundt also spoke about introspection and
Titchener one of his students who propagated
Wundts views spoke about introspection so
Titcherens form of introspection of self observation
relied on observers who were rigorously trained
to describe the elements of their state and
rather than reporting the observed or experienced
stimulus by a fair familiar name Titchener
adopted Kulpes label another uhhh Kulpe was
another psychologists of the time and he had
started his study under Wundt so he was also
a student of Wundt and Titchener took up Kulpes
label of systematic experimental introspection
and he also used that to describe his experimental
method of introspection So like Kulpe Titchener
also used detailed qualitative subjective
reports of his subjects mental acts during
the acts of introspecting
So it is a little different from Wundt Wundt
studied Wundt said that you are studying the
introspective process as it is happening and
here Wundt focused on the objective processes
so he focussed on the objective quantitative
measurements Titchener on the other hand focussed
on the parts whereas Wundt focussed emphasise
on the whole and that is why Wundt focus more
on the apperceptive process so that a synthesis
of the elements
Titchener focused on parts so Titchener psychology
or the study of structuralism is definitely
very different from Wundts study of the psychology
So where we could uhhh say that Wundts study
was more on voluntarism or he actually worked
more on violation The elements of consciousness
so Titchener spoke of the essential problems
for psychology so he said these are should
be the research areas of psychology So that
is to reduce to see reduced conscious processes
to their central simplest component Determine
the laws by which these elements of consciousness
were associated and connect the elements with
their physiological ambitions So these were
the three areas that Titchener believed should
be taken up as psychological mechanisms to
be studied
So there have been several criticism of structuralism
and (struc) but it has also made huge contributions
to the science of psychology one of the major
reasons for structuralisms build up in America
was Titchener himself He was uhhh an amazing
orator and he is many of his students report
his lectures as dramatic performance in fact
boring one of his students who later turned
out Boring was turned out to be a historian
later reports that his class rooms were overflowing
with students and they were Titchener entered
uhhh through another gate and then to that
laid him directly to the podium and his performance
was astounding and in his class lecture in
the way he spoke and here he was he he looked
and spoke like Wundt
So there were many things that he tried to
emulate from Wundt and many people actually
thought considered Titchener in fact he also
kept beard like Wundt and many in many people
mistook him as a German He was an Englishmen
but he was mistaken as a German for by many
and Titcheners influence on his students was
humungous in fact several students several
of his students had objections to his to the
way he influenced their lives or he was involved
in their lives
So perhaps this way of dealing with his students
and with psychology made also helped in propagating
his views also helped his and his personality
his oratory skills and the fear and the work
that it aroused in arousing many people and
many of his students during that time so then
the strange thing is that most of the times
students most of the times people again prominence
in history because they have objected to an
already established view
Titchener on the other hand stood firm when
others moved behind and there were other schools
of psychology that would gradually coming
up and but Titchener stood firm and with his
idea and in this intellectual climate of America
and Europe the psychology of the time had
also changed but the published this establishment
that Titchener had created he did not move
from his point
In fact he was very angry with people who
refuted his point so there were conflicts
with people but I I must say that Titcheners
contributions to psychology has definitely
led uhhh ground breaking influence on development
of psychology at that time See with most of
the theories coming up as a criticism to structuralism
so this is his research methods based on observation
experimentation and measurement and they were
in the highest traditions of science and it
was consciousness could be only experienced
perceived by the person having the conscious
He spoke about self observation so the most
as the as the way to study experience and
he also changed the way he tried to use introspection
and in fact of course Kulpe actually spoke
about that experimental introspection where
he speaks about more about the subjective
report where the individual explains what
he went through after the conscious experience
and this is still followed We will see that
it is followed in other places also so till
date when you are doing a psychophysics experiment
especially (psycho) psychology students who
are attending this course you must be familiar
with it after an experiment on psychophysics
we generally ask to report as a your subjective
experience what you went through The same
thing is also used in space psychology when
people experience the weightlessness
This idea was introduced by Wundt but it was
propagated also by Kulpe and finally Titchener
So these are still used till date so we cannot
ignore the contribution of structuralism Meanwhile
in the other parts of the world we see that
there were certain developments that were
taking place and one of the famous people
of the time was Charles Darwin and his notion
of evolution and this changed the focus of
new psychology from the structure of consciousness
to its functions So see now psychology has
is to has established itself they were people
who were doing their psychology programs their
doctoral degrees and moving forth with their
new ideas and with their new lab setups and
it was inevitable that his was a time for
the functionalists to come
So functionalists primarily studied that what
do these mental processes accomplish so now
they did not studied the mental elements and
structures but they studied the mind from
the functions and processes and how it related
to the early experiences So it was obvious
that the time was now ready for understanding
the functions and these was primarily influenced
by the other world developments and in this
case Charles Darwin played a huge role and
off course also Francis Galton
So strangely they were cousins and Darwin
in Darwin actually saw psychology as an important
science and he said that in the distant future
Darwin wrote in 1859 I see open fields for
more important researches Psychology will
be based on a new foundation and Darwins work
influenced contemporary psychology in the
following ways so he focused on animals psychology
which formed the basis of comparative psychology
So as you see psychology has established itself
as an experimental science it is also influencing
the idea of comparative psychology or understanding
animal behaviour so an emphasis also on the
functions rather than the structures of consciousness
Darwin focused on that the acceptance of methodology
and data from many other fields so it was
also trying to make psychology as an interdisciplinary
So we are talking about understanding data
from other sciences and their focused on the
description and measurement of individual
differences So the theory of evolution raised
the intriguing possibility of continuity in
the mental functioning between humans and
the lower animals If the human mind had evolved
from more primitive minds did it follow that
there were similarities in mental functioning
between animals and humans so this was the
onset of comparative psychology
We will see that the behaviourists who come
later when you are experimenting on learning
primarily had started with working with animals
and during this time another individual who
happened to be Darwins cousin that is Francis
Galton started talking about individual differences
Francis Galton was an extremely intelligent
person it is considered that his IQ was beyond
200 and Galton had various interests so he
spoke about uhhh he he could speak several
languages fluently and just said that one
of his professors asked him to translate a
paper an article from Dutch to English so
he said that in a week so he said that I do
not know Dutch so his professor said that
you learn it and he did it
So he was immensely intelligent and he had
several ideas he had different ideas that
he would wished to pursue and if you can if
you see you will see that it is very different
They are very novel and very different from
each other so few of the topics he investigated
are fingerprints fashions so imagine him talking
about fingerprints in the 1820s 1830s The
geographical he spoke about fashion he was
interested in studying fashion the geographical
distribution of beauty weight lifting and
the effectiveness of prayer
So as you can understand it is way different
all his ideas are way different from each
other but what is very important in this that
he was he read up Darwins book on evolutionary
theory and he was so impressed that there
was an he wrote a book on heritage inheritance
and this he later used to this the books name
was Hereditary Genius which again Darwin read
and thought that it was an amazing piece of
work and it could be actually experimentally
verified also with the form of different experiments
Now uhhh this after this Hereditary Genius
even from these various ideas that Galton
had you will see that he he thought that there
is a very important effect of genetics on
the way or hereditary on the way an individual
So the individual differences he spoke about
individual differences and he said that intelligence
and different other traits were dependant
on the inherited properties so it was less
of the environment and more of the hereditary
So uhhh the so he started working on mental
tests and he Galton so developed the idea
of creating intelligence tests and he mental
test was the idea of the mental tests was
actually coined by Galton one of his disciples
and also a student of Wundt and what were
mental tests so theses were tests of motor
skills and sensory abilities and the intelligence
tests are actually the same but they are more
a little more complex measures of mental abilities
So the ideas of these intelligence tests was
originated by Galton and Galton assumed that
intelligence could be measured in terms of
a persons sensory capacities and that higher
the intelligence the higher the level of sensory
functioning In fact the information processing
theories that were later developed also talked
on similar lines So what did Galton do to
carry out his aim Galton needed to invent
the apparatus with which sensory measurements
could be taken quickly and accurately from
large number of people So he was trying to
assess the intelligence so he would need to
make sensory its measurements and for that
to determine the highest frequency of sound
that could be detected for example he invented
a whistle and which he tested on animals so
he would move around the zoo and trying to
test the behaviour of animals when he tried
when he used that whistle and this has come
to be known as a Galtons whistle
So most of you are uhhh you are familiar with
this so Galtons whistle became a standard
piece of psychology laboratory and used in
the 30s after it was replaced by other things
So other instruments that Galton used included
a photometer so that measures a precision
with which a subject a would matched to spots
of colour a calibrated pendulum to measure
the speed of reaction to lights and sounds
so this was actually to see the reaction time
and a series of weights that could be arranged
in order of heaviness to measure the muscle
sensitivity and the tactual sensitivity
So you see Galton had actually started building
a standardized laboratory psychology laboratory
with apparatus to understand the mechanisms
of the mind so when we are talking about psychology
as the study of the soul from then you see
it moved to the mind and then to consciousness
and now we are measuring consciousness Wundt
spoke of it in one way uhhh Titchener spoke
of it in one way Kulpe also uhhh spoke of
it in one way and now we are speaking about
the ways to measure the mind so and the ways
to measure the functions of the mind through
real time instruments and he also Galton also
provided a bar with variable distance scale
to test the estimation of visual extension
and the set of bottles containing various
substances to test olfactory discrimination
So see he is using all the equipment to understand
the different sensory organs
So most of Galtons equipment have actually
become a part of the standardize laboratory
equipment a first psychology lab so he established
the Anthropometric laboratory in 1884 at the
international health exhibition centre and
later moved it to the Londons south Kensington
Museum and during the 6 years the laboratory
remain active Galton collected data from more
than 9000 people He arranged the instruments
for the Anthropometric and psychometric measurements
on a long table and yet the recordings were
So this as you can see is Galtons laboratory
so there were several office assistance where
the individual entered from one room one side
and would continue with all the experiments
So this was the Anthropometric laboratory
to collect data on human psychometric capabilities
So there were other measurements along with
the sensory data that was collected and that
was height weight breathing power strength
of pull and squeeze and quickness of blow
hearing vision and colour sense So actually
each person took around 17 tests and Galtons
purpose in this large scale test testing programme
was to understand the range of human capacities
of the entire British population to determine
its collective mental resources So think about
the time so this is the time when the World
wars are on so here this is time when there
is a lot of political movement in the world
and Britain being and taking an active part
in it at that point it is also very important
to understand the resources that a country
has so Galtons work on sensory on intelligence
was uhhh well taken during that time
Strangely you know Galtons data was taken
studied by psychologists in US uhhh century
later and they found that the tests were statistically
reliable and it provided the data not only
provided information on all these tests but
it also provided information on the developmental
trends of childhood adolescence and maturity
when the population was tested And there were
several things that showed that the rate of
development during Galtons time had been slightly
low as in the measurements in weight arm span
breathing power strength of squeeze these
measurements that were taken by Galton a century
They showed that the development was a little
lower slower as compared to current times
Galton during this time was also working on
statistics and he is the first one to come
up with the idea of co relation So in fact
one of his students Pearson was encouraged
by Galton to come up with the Persons product
movement coefficient of co relation later
So Galton used these co relations also to
understand the inheritance properties so he
also influenced the idea of unconscious thought
processes and which could be brought to the
level of consciousness through awareness incidence
and he wrote about this in an article in the
Brain in 1879 Sigmund Freud in Austria at
that point in time was also working on his
ideas of unconscious and he subscribe to this
journal to understand to read Galtons work
and he was really influenced by Galtons theory
on unconsciousness So of great importance
in Galtons results is also his understanding
or all his development of the word association
test Wundt uhhh at his laboratory adopted
the technique limiting his subjective subjective
responses to a single word Later on Karl Jung
another associate of Sigmund Freud took up
the word association and used it in his ideas
to develop his theory of personality
So you can see Galtons wide influence on different
psychological aspects again finally Galton
spoke about mental images so see Wundt ignored
the use of imagery and so here he Galton studied
in mental images and marked the first extensive
use of the psychological questionnaire So
they were subjects who were asked to recall
a scene such as their breakfast table at morning
and tried to elicit the images They were told
to report whether the images were dim or clear
bright or dark coloured or dotted and black
or white and so on
And strangely Galton saw that his first group
of subjects those who were scientific acquaintances
reported no clear images at all so some are
not even sure what Galton was talking of So
they were not being able to either develop
the imagery or they were not being able to
report it Now turning to a broader cross section
so here he was looking at other people of
the population so not the scientific acquaintances
only and he obtained reports of clear and
distinct images full of colour and detail
and the best images were uhhh given by women
and children so they were more concrete and
So through statistical analysis Galton determined
that mental imagery like so many other human
characteristics is comes in a human in a normal
probability curve or a bell shaped curve So
the average of the population will be in the
centre there will be some exceptionally good
and some exceptionally bad So more than 150
years later two American psychologists repeated
Galtons experiments comparing the mental imagery
of scientists and college undergraduates They
found no differences between the two groups
the scientists displayed ample visual imagery
and response to the same questions Galton
had asked such as images of their breakfast
table at morning
So but though the difference results differences
in results were seen it must still be acknowledge
that his work was the first study on mental
imagery So Galtons work on imagery was rooted
in his continuing attempt to demonstrate hereditary
similarities so Galtons spoke that people
who generally from the same family produced
similar images So though at that time Galton
spoke about it as hereditary hereditary being
an influence on the types of images the individual
reported it could also be in todays date with
so much of information on psychology we can
also say that it is probably also because
of the amount of information and the type
of information that the family members exposed
to a certain environment the input is available
to an individual
So maybe thats why it is it is the rule of
environment which also has an importance as
to how what kind of imagery is produced but
Galton of course focused more on the hereditary
uhhh affects and its impact on mental imagery
and also on intelligence So finally as we
end the first weeks lecture in great experiments
in psychology we have covered the history
and genesis of psychology as a science from
the developments in philosophy and physiology
as well as the physical sciences and how its
impact in the world in different parts of
the world brought about this new science of
psychology How the geo geophysical there are
influences of Germany being more more substantially
involved in the development of psychology
as a science and then how it spread across
to the different other parts of the world
And so in the next lecture classes of the
week in the next week even to take up classics
studies and cognitive and social psychology
I hope you will enjoy it and there will be
a small assignment at the end of this week
so please it is going to be really small so
please finish it and submit it as quickly
as possible Thank you

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